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The neurons responsible for the onset of sleep are thought to be located in the preoptic area and more specifically, in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Here we identify sleep-promoting neurons in vitro and show that they represent an homogeneous population of cells that must be inhibited by systems of arousal during the waking state. We find that(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus through its extensive efferents has been implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioural functions. However, little is know about its afferents. Therefore, to identify the systems likely to influence the activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus, we re-examined the forebrain afferents to the dorsal(More)
The aim of the present study was to identify the specific afferent projections to the rostral and caudal nucleus raphe magnus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars alpha and the rostral nucleus raphe pallidus. For this purpose, small iontophoretic injections of the sensitive retrograde tracer choleratoxin (subunit b) were made in each of these(More)
Extracellular electrophysiological recordings in freely moving cats have shown that serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) fire tonically during wakefulness, decrease their activity during slow wave sleep (SWS), and are nearly quiescent during paradoxical sleep (PS). The mechanisms at the origin of the modulation of activity of these(More)
To localize glycinergic cell bodies and fibers in the rat brain, we developed a sensitive immunohistochemical method combining the use of specific glycine antibodies (Campistron G. et al. (1986) Brain Res. 376, 400-405; Wenthold R. J. et al. (1987) Neuroscience 22, 897-912) with the streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase technique and(More)
Recent research has shown that neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus are crucial for sleep by inhibiting wake-promoting systems, but the process that triggers their activation at sleep onset remains to be established. Since evidence indicates that sleep induced by adenosine, an endogenous sleep-promoting substance, requires activation of brain A(2A)(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the afferents to the rat locus coeruleus by means of retrograde and anterograde tracing experiments using cholera-toxin B subunit and phaseolus leucoagglutinin. To obtain reliable injections of cholera-toxin B in the locus coeruleus, electrophysiological recordings were made through glass micropipettes containing the(More)
In this report, we demonstrate that cholera-toxin B subunit (CTb) is a very sensitive retrograde tracer in the central nervous system when recognized by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. We further show that: (1) injection of a small volume of CTb gives rise to small sharply defined injection sites limited to the cell group of interest(More)
Overlapped in the tuberal hypothalamic area (THA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons contribute to the integrated regulation of food intake, energy regulation and sleep. Recently, physiological role in appetite suppression has been defined for a novel hypothalamic molecule, nesfatin-1. Acute i.c.v. infusion of nesfatin-1(More)
Since the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (also known as paradoxical sleep; PS), it is accepted that sleep is an active process. PS is characterized by EEG rhythmic activity resembling that of waking with a disappearance of muscle tone and the occurrence of REMs, in contrast to slow-wave sleep (SWS, also known as non-REM sleep) identified by the(More)