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The neurons responsible for the onset of sleep are thought to be located in the preoptic area and more specifically, in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Here we identify sleep-promoting neurons in vitro and show that they represent an homogeneous population of cells that must be inhibited by systems of arousal during the waking state. We find that(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus through its extensive efferents has been implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioural functions. However, little is know about its afferents. Therefore, to identify the systems likely to influence the activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus, we re-examined the forebrain afferents to the dorsal(More)
To localize glycinergic cell bodies and fibers in the rat brain, we developed a sensitive immunohistochemical method combining the use of specific glycine antibodies (Campistron G. et al. (1986) Brain Res. 376, 400-405; Wenthold R. J. et al. (1987) Neuroscience 22, 897-912) with the streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase technique and(More)
The aim of the present study was to identify the specific afferent projections to the rostral and caudal nucleus raphe magnus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars alpha and the rostral nucleus raphe pallidus. For this purpose, small iontophoretic injections of the sensitive retrograde tracer choleratoxin (subunit b) were made in each of these(More)
In this report, we demonstrate that cholera-toxin B subunit (CTb) is a very sensitive retrograde tracer in the central nervous system when recognized by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. We further show that: (1) injection of a small volume of CTb gives rise to small sharply defined injection sites limited to the cell group of interest(More)
Using a sensitive double immunostaining technique with unconjugated cholera-toxin B subunit as a retrograde tracer, the authors determined the nuclei of origin of monoaminergic, peptidergic, and cholinergic afferent projections to the cat facial nucleus (FN). The FN as a whole receives substantial afferent projections, with relative subnuclear differences,(More)
Supraspinal afferents to the pontine micturition center, Barrington's nucleus, were investigated in the rat by visualization of the retrograde tracer, cholera-toxin subunit B, in neurons following iontophoretic injection into Barrington's nucleus. Tissue sections from five rats with injections primarily localized in Barrington's nucleus revealed numerous(More)
Extracellular electrophysiological recordings in freely moving cats have shown that serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) fire tonically during wakefulness, decrease their activity during slow wave sleep (SWS), and are nearly quiescent during paradoxical sleep (PS). The mechanisms at the origin of the modulation of activity of these(More)
Since the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (also known as paradoxical sleep; PS), it is accepted that sleep is an active process. PS is characterized by EEG rhythmic activity resembling that of waking with a disappearance of muscle tone and the occurrence of REMs, in contrast to slow-wave sleep (SWS, also known as non-REM sleep) identified by the(More)
Retrograde axonal transport of the cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) was combined with 5-HT immunohistochemistry to determine the origin of the serotonergic innervation of the piriform cortex (PC) in the rat. After iontophoretic CTb injections in the PC, a substantial number of retrogradely labeled cells were found in the middle and medio-ventral part of the(More)