P H Gruen

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Popularization of the dexamethasone suppression test has focused attention on the relation between cortisol metabolism and mood and behavior. This article considers the biochemistry, physiology, and pharmacology of cortisol and cortisol-like substances. In addition, the effects of external stresses on cortisol metabolism and circadian rhythmicity of(More)
The prolactin response to neuroleptics can serve as an index of dopamine blockade in humans. Plasma prolactin increments to single doses of chlorpromazine, and prolactin decrements to single doses of levodopa, were similar in normal and schizophrenic subjects. Antischizophrenic drugs of all chemical classes stimulated prolactin release,while chemically(More)
Interest in possible neuroendocrine disturbances in endogenous depression is prompted by two lines of evidence: (1) clinical features of the illness suggest hypothalamic dysfunction; (2) the brain neurotransmitters implicated in depression also regulate neuroendocrine function. Our research reveals a marked, sustained hypersecretion in cortisol in severe(More)
Thioridazine, unlike most other effective antipsychotic drugs, appears to be only a weak dopamine antagonist in various regions of the brain. We decided to test, indirectly, thioridazine's effects on another brain dopaminergic system, the tuberoinfundibular tract, which regulates prolactin secretion by stimulating hypothalamic secretion of(More)
Mean plasma LH concentration in postmenopausal women suffering unipolar depressive illness was 33% less than that of normal postmenopausal women (P less than 0.05). Since LH secretion after menopause is probably noradrenergically regulated, the finding provides support for the hypothesis of a functional noradrenaline deficit in depression.
Human growth hormone (HGH) responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured in ten postmenopausal women suffering from primary unipolar depressive illness, and in ten age-matched normal postmenopausal women. The mean maximal HGH response in the depressed patients was 4.6 plus or minus 4.4 ng/ml, and in the normals 13.3 plus or minus 9.8 ng/ml (P less(More)
After ingestion of 500 mg of levodopa, postmenopausal women had significantly diminished human growth hormone (HGH) responses (mean, 4.6 ng/ml), as compared with those of age-matched men (mean, 9.1 ng/ml; P smaller than .05). The differences between the groups were not related to plasma dopa concentrations. The HGH responses to levodopa of age-matched(More)
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