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To test the hypothesis that interaction between genetic, immunological, clinical and metabolic risk factors influences the outcome of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, we examined which of the above factors present at baseline were associated with mortality in 134 Type II diabetic patients followed for 9 years. Thirty-eight patients (29 %)(More)
Increased concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, a finding suggestive of the presence of inflammation, have been observed in Type 2 diabetes. In such patients, C-reactive protein was predictive of diabetic nephropathy. Studies on low-grade inflammatory markers and nephropathy in Type 1 diabetic patients have shown conflicting results.(More)
Diabetic nephropathy has been associated with low-grade inflammation and activation of the complement system in cross-sectional studies. Data from prospective studies are sparse. We investigated the associations of the complement activator mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with the(More)
Aims/hypothesis. The incidence of Type 1 diabetes has increased 2.5 times during the time period from 1966 to 2000 in Finland—a general trend seen in almost all developed countries that can only be explained by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to test the possible effect of a changing environment on distribution of genotypes associated with(More)
We studied the relationship between the lipid profile, estimated GFR (eGFR) and AER in patients with type 1 diabetes. We also assessed the association between the lipid profile and glycaemic control, obesity and hypertension in an environment free of manifest renal disease, as well as exploring how well the patients would have achieved the targets set in(More)
In order to study the heterogeneity of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, we determined HLA antigens and measured B-cell function as C-peptide response to intravenous glucagon in 217 patients with onset of non-ketotic diabetes after the age of 40 years. Their HLA frequencies were compared with those of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and(More)
Microalbuminuria is common in type 1 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of renal and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical prediction rule that estimates the absolute risk of microalbuminuria. Data from the European Diabetes Prospective Complications Study (n = 1115) were used to develop the prediction rule(More)
This study examined sex-related differences in the cumulative risk of proliferative retinopathy (PR) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) over 40 years of duration of type 1 diabetes according to age at diabetes onset. We assessed 4,416 patients from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study population. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to provide cumulative(More)
Activation of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) is implicated in the development and progression of vascular complications of diabetes. In this study, we explore factors and mortality outcomes associated with soluble RAGE (sRAGE) in a multicentre nationwide cohort of Finnish adults with type 1 diabetes. Baseline sRAGE concentrations were estimated in 3,100 adults(More)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of hyperglycaemia on regional concentrations of glucose and other substrates within the brain in non-diabetic individuals and in patients with type 1 diabetes. The brain metabolites of 17 men with type 1 diabetes and 12 age-matched non-diabetic men (22–43 years old) were studied after an overnight fast (plasma(More)