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Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a devastating complication that affects an estimated third of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). There is no cure once the disease is diagnosed, but early treatment at a sub-clinical stage can prevent or at least halt the progression. DKD is clinically diagnosed as abnormally high urinary albumin excretion rate(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Microalbuminuria is common in type 1 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of renal and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical prediction rule that estimates the absolute risk of microalbuminuria. METHODS Data from the European Diabetes Prospective Complications Study (n = 1115) were used to develop(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Homozygosity for a five leucine repeat (5L-5L) in the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) has been found to be cross-sectionally associated with a low frequency of diabetic nephropathy (DN), mainly in type 2 diabetes. We prospectively investigated in patients with type 1 diabetes whether: (1) 5L-5L is associated with mortality; (2) there is an(More)
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