P H Duffield

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Kava, an intoxicating beverage prepared from the pepper plant Piper methysticum, is widely consumed by the indigenous peoples in the islands of the South Pacific. As the first of a series of studies on the neuropharmacological interactions of kava with CNS receptors we tested purified pyrones and kava resin for activity on GABA and benzodiazepine binding(More)
A technique using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and deuterated internal standards is described for the quantitation in brain tissue of four constituents of the intoxicating beverage kava. Dihydrokawain, kawain, desmethoxyyangonin, and yangonin were administered ip to mice at a dosage of 100 mg/kg. At specific time intervals (5, 15, 30, and 45 min),(More)
The central nervous activity of the aqueous extract of kava was examined in mice, and compared to the effect of the lipid-soluble extract. The aqueous extract caused a loss of spontaneous activity without loss of muscle tone. No hypnotic effect was seen, but some analgesia was produced. The anticonvulsant effect against strychnine was very slight and there(More)
1. The antinociceptive properties of the aqueous extract of the intoxicating beverage kava, and of the lipid soluble extract (kava resin) were tested in mice, by the tail immersion and abdominal constriction methods. Both extracts showed analgesic effects in both tests. 2. Eight purified pyrones from the lipid soluble extract were also tested for activity(More)
Methane chemical ionization (CI) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used to identify some of the human urinary metabolites of the kava lactones following ingestion of kava prepared by the traditional method of aqueous extraction of Piper methysticum. All seven major, and several minor, kava lactones were identified in human urine.(More)
Bornyl cinnamate has been identified as a constituent of kava resin and of the steam distillate of Piper methysticum. 5-Hydroxydihydrokawain was identified in commercial samples of P. methysticum originating from Vanuatu provided an initial aqueous extraction was employed. Commercial preparations, and fresh samples of the root of this plant from Fiji,(More)
A method has been developed for the quantitation of the putative phenolamine neurotransmitter octopamine, and its precursor tyramine, in brain tissue. The procedure employs methane chemical ionization of the pentafluoropropionate derivatives of octopamine and tyramine together with the use of deuterated internal standards and selected ion monitoring.(More)
Behavioural studies showed that administration of alpha-methyl-p-tyramine (AMT; 10 mg/kg i.p.) to rats 24 hr before treatment with d-amphetamine (AMPHET; 4 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in augmentation of AMPHET-induced stereotype activity. Parallel experiments involving electro-chemical estimation of dopamine metabolites in the striatum showed that the decrease in(More)
The aqueous, pyrone-free extract from kava (Piper methysticum) and the lipid-soluble extract (kava resin) were tested for their effect on amphetamine-induced hypermotility in mice and on conditioned avoidance response behavior in rats in a shelf-jump apparatus. Both kava extracts reduced amphetamine-induced hypermotility. Aqueous kava extract in i.p. doses(More)
1. The lipid soluble extract of the psychoactive beverage kava has hypnosedative properties which can be measured by the length of time that the righting reflex is lost. 2. Ethanol and the lipid soluble extract (kava resin) have been shown greatly to increase each others hypnotic action in mice. Ethanol also increases the toxicity of kava markedly. 3. This(More)