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We report the first identification of a cellular receptor mediating entry of a gram-positive bacterium into nonphagocytotic cells. By an affinity chromatography approach, we identified E-cadherin as the ligand for internalin, an L. monocytogenes protein essential for entry into epithelial cells. Expression of the chicken homolog of E-cadherin (L-CAM) in(More)
The secreton (type II secretion) and type IV pilus biogenesis branches of the general secretory pathway in Gram-negative bacteria share many features that suggest a common evolutionary origin. Five components of the secreton, the pseudopilins, are similar to subunits of type IV pili. Here, we report that when the 15 genes encoding the pullulanase secreton(More)
Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. We used the contact hemolytic activity of Shigella flexneri to investigate its putative translocator. Hemolysis was caused by formation of a 25-A pore within the red blood(More)
Paramutation is a heritable epigenetic modification induced in plants by cross-talk between allelic loci. Here we report a similar modification of the mouse Kit gene in the progeny of heterozygotes with the null mutant Kit(tm1Alf) (a lacZ insertion). In spite of a homozygous wild-type genotype, their offspring maintain, to a variable extent, the white spots(More)
The gram-negative pathogen Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery, an invasive disease of the human colonic mucosa. A major characteristic of the infectious process is the occurrence of an acute inflammatory reaction of mucosal tissues which is generally consequence of primary invasion and destruction of colonic epithelial cells by the pathogen.(More)
With the recent success of the heterologous expression of mycobacterial antigens in corynebacteria, in addition to the importance of these bacteria in biotechnology and medicine, a better understanding of the structure of their cell envelopes was needed. A combination of molecular compositional analysis, ultrastructural appearance and freeze-etch electron(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for severe food-borne infections, but the mechanisms by which bacteria cross the intestinal barrier are unknown. Listeria monocytogenes expresses a surface protein, internalin, that interacts with a host receptor, E-cadherin, to promote entry into human epithelial cells. Murine E-cadherin, in contrast to guinea pig(More)
Genetic complementation of a spontaneous mutant, impaired in flocculation, Congo red binding, and colonization of root surface, led to the identification of a new regulatory gene in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, designated flcA. The deduced amino acid sequence of flcA shared high similarity with a family of transcriptional activators of the LuxR-UphA family.(More)
Type III secretion systems (TTSSs or secretons), essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacteria, serve to translocate proteins directly from the bacteria into the host cytoplasm. Electron microscopy (EM) indicates that the TTSSs of Shigella flexneri are composed of: (1) an external needle; (2) a transmembrane domain; and (3) a cytoplasmic(More)
The infection of plants by obligate parasitic nematodes constitutes an interesting model for investigating plant cytoskeleton functions. Root knot nematodes have evolved the ability to manipulate host functions to their own advantage by redifferentiating root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied feeding cells. These giant cells result from repeated(More)