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An important aspect of motivated behavior is that organisms will perform complex instrumental behaviors to gain access to stimuli such as food. In the present study, food-deprived rats were tested in an operant chamber in which the animals had a choice between pressing a lever to obtain a more-preferred food (Bioserve pellets), or free feeding on a(More)
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated the landing site in Eagle crater and the nearby plains within Meridiani Planum. The soils consist of fine-grained basaltic sand and a surface lag of hematite-rich spherules, spherule fragments, and other granules. Wind ripples are common. Underlying the thin soil layer, and exposed within small impact(More)
The irreversible conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons in Titan's stratosphere implies a surface or subsurface methane reservoir. Recent measurements from the cameras aboard the Cassini orbiter fail to see a global reservoir, but the methane and smog in Titan's atmosphere impedes the search for hydrocarbons on the surface. Here we report spectra(More)
A 14nm logic technology using 2 nd-generation FinFET transistors with a novel subfin doping technique, self-aligned double patterning (SADP) for critical patterning layers, and air-gapped interconnects at performance-critical layers is described. The transistors feature rectangular fins with 8nm fin width and 42nm fin height, 4 th generation high-k metal(More)
Inactivation of cell death is a major step in tumor development, and p53, a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in cancer, is a critical mediator of cell death. While a role for p53 in apoptosis is well established, direct links to other pathways controlling cell death are unknown. Here we describe DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator), a p53 target(More)
Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) has the potential to identify changes in DNA methylation important in cancer development. In order to understand the role of epigenetic modulation in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) we have applied MeDIP-seq to the DNA of 12 AML patients and 4 normal bone(More)
The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and its Athena science payload have been used to investigate a landing site in Gusev crater. Gusev is hypothesized to be the site of a former lake, but no clear evidence for lacustrine sedimentation has been found to date. Instead, the dominant lithology is basalt, and the dominant geologic processes are impact events and(More)
Comparative two-dimensional proteome analysis was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in multiple clinical normal and breast cancer tissues. One protein, the expression of which was elevated in invasive ductal and lobular breast carcinomas when compared with normal breast tissue, was arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT-1), a Phase II(More)
The combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) is one of several standard treatment options for advanced follicular lymphoma. This, like similar chemotherapeutic regimens, induces response rates of 60% to 80%, with a median response duration of under 2 years. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20, is active in(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence on survival of delays prior to presentation and/or treatment among women with breast cancer. Duration of symptoms prior to hospital referral was recorded for 2964 women who presented with any stage of breast cancer to Guy's Hospital between 1975 and 1990. Median follow-up is 12.5 years. The impact(More)