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Studies on the proactive control of gait have shown that proximal (hip/trunk) muscles are the primary contributors to balance control, while studies on reactive balance control during perturbed gait, examining only activity in distal (leg/thigh) muscles, have shown that these muscles are important in compensating for a gait disturbance. This study tested(More)
BACKGROUND Slips account for a high percentage of falls and subsequent injuries in community-dwelling older adults but not in young adults. This phenomenon suggests that although active and healthy older adults preserve a mobility level comparable to that of young adults, these older adults may have difficulty generating efficient reactive postural(More)
BACKGROUND Functional mobility of older adults has been shown to correlate with stance stability to various extents. This variability could be due to the difference in the way sensory information is processed in these two types of balance tests. Correlations between functional mobility and stance stability under altered sensory conditions, such as those in(More)
BACKGROUND Phase-dependent modulation of postural responses plays an important functional role in integrating reflexes into ongoing locomotion behaviors. This study tested the hypotheses that proximal and distal postural responses are modulated differently according to the phases of the gait cycle in young adults and that there is a decline in this(More)
We demonstrate using conditional mutagenesis that Pbx1, with and without Pbx2(+/-) sensitization, regulates regional identity and laminar patterning of the developing mouse neocortex in cortical progenitors (Emx1-Cre) and in newly generated neurons (Nex1-Cre). Pbx1/2 mutants have three salient molecular phenotypes of cortical regional and laminar(More)
The general structure of antagonists of substance P (SP) which was found with the development of Spantide and analogs based on Spantide served for further refinement. The antagonistic potency was tested in vitro on guinea pig ileum and taenia coli. It was unexpectedly found that introduction of Asn6 gave rise to a considerable increase in potency. The(More)
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