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The mechanism of formation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by the action of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is not defined completely. To address this issue, we monitored efflux to apoA-I of phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and unesterified (free) cholesterol (FC) from J774 macrophages, in which ABCA1 is up-regulated,(More)
The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a critical role in the biogenesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and in mediating cellular cholesterol efflux. The mechanism by which ABCA1 achieves these effects is not established, despite extensive investigation. Here, we present a model that explains the essential features, especially(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E mediates lipoprotein remnant clearance via interaction with cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Both the 22-kDa N-terminal domain and 10-kDa C-terminal domain of apoE contain a heparin binding site; the N-terminal site overlaps with the low density lipoprotein receptor binding region and the C-terminal site is undefined. To(More)
The tertiary structure of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and the contributions of structural domains to the properties of the protein molecule are not well defined. We used a series of engineered human and mouse apoA-I molecules in a range of physical-biochemical measurements to address this issue. Circular dichroism measurements of alpha-helix thermal unfolding(More)
The interaction of apolipoprotein E (apoE) with cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans is an important step in the uptake of lipoprotein remnants by the liver. ApoE interacts predominantly with heparin through the N-terminal binding site spanning the residues around 136-150. In this work, surface plasmon resonance analysis was employed to investigate(More)
The tertiary structures of human and mouse apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are comprised of an N-terminal helix bundle and a separate C-terminal domain. To define the possible intramolecular interaction between the N- and the C-terminal domains, we examined the effects on protein stability and lipid-binding properties of exchanging either the C-terminal domain(More)
Detailed structural information on human exchangeable apolipoproteins (apo) is required to understand their functions in lipid transport. Using a series of deletion mutants that progressively lacked different regions along the molecule, we probed the structural organization of lipid-free human apoA-I and the role of different domains in lipid binding,(More)
ApoE exists as three common isoforms, apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4; apoE2 and apoE3 preferentially bind to high density lipoproteins, whereas apoE4 prefers very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). To understand the molecular basis for the different lipoprotein distributions of these isoforms in human plasma, we examined the lipid-binding properties of the apoE(More)
Lipid binding of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) occurs initially through the C-terminal alpha-helices followed by conformational reorganization of the N-terminal helix bundle. This led us to hypothesize that apoA-I has multiple lipid-bound conformations, in which the N-terminal helix bundle adopts either open or closed conformations anchored by the(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to understand the molecular basis of how the amino acid substitution C112R that distinguishes human apolipoprotein (apo) E4 from apoE3 causes the more proatherogenic plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol distribution that is known to be associated with the expression of apoE4. APPROACH AND RESULTS Adeno-associated viruses,(More)