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The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a critical role in the biogenesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and in mediating cellular cholesterol efflux. The mechanism by which ABCA1 achieves these effects is not established, despite extensive investigation. Here, we present a model that explains the essential features, especially(More)
The mechanism of formation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by the action of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is not defined completely. To address this issue, we monitored efflux to apoA-I of phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and unesterified (free) cholesterol (FC) from J774 macrophages, in which ABCA1 is up-regulated,(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E mediates lipoprotein remnant clearance via interaction with cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Both the 22-kDa N-terminal domain and 10-kDa C-terminal domain of apoE contain a heparin binding site; the N-terminal site overlaps with the low density lipoprotein receptor binding region and the C-terminal site is undefined. To(More)
ApoE exists as three common isoforms, apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4; apoE2 and apoE3 preferentially bind to high density lipoproteins, whereas apoE4 prefers very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). To understand the molecular basis for the different lipoprotein distributions of these isoforms in human plasma, we examined the lipid-binding properties of the apoE(More)
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) accepts cholesterol and phospholipids from ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-expressing cells to form high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Human apoA-I has two tertiary structural domains and the C-terminal domain (approximately amino acids 190-243) plays a key role in lipid binding. Although the high lipid affinity region(More)
The arachidonic acid cascade leading to prostaglandins has been implicated in diabetic embryopathy. Both arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 reverse the teratogenic effects of high glucose concentrations on neural tube development in mouse embryos in culture. Arachidonic acid supplementation also protects against diabetes-induced neural tube defects in(More)
Lysines in apolipoprotein (apo) E are key factors in the binding of apoE to the low density lipoprotein receptor, and high affinity binding requires that apoE be associated with lipid. To gain insight into this effect, we examined the microenvironments of the eight lysines in the 22-kDa fragment of apoE3 (residues 1-191) in the lipid-free and(More)
The tertiary structure of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and the contributions of structural domains to the properties of the protein molecule are not well defined. We used a series of engineered human and mouse apoA-I molecules in a range of physical-biochemical measurements to address this issue. Circular dichroism measurements of alpha-helix thermal unfolding(More)
The influence of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I structure on ABCA1-mediated efflux of cellular unesterified (free) cholesterol (FC) and phospholipid (PL) is not well understood. To address this issue, we used a series of apoA-I mutants to examine the contributions of various domains in the molecule to ABCA1-mediated FC and PL efflux from mouse J774 macrophages(More)
To understand the molecular basis for the different self-association and lipoprotein preferences of apolipoprotein (apo) E isoforms, we compared the effects of progressive truncation of the C-terminal domain in human apoE3 and apoE4 on their lipid-free structure and lipid binding properties. A VLDL/HDL distribution assay demonstrated that apoE3 binds much(More)