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We demonstrate sub-Poissonian number differences in four-wave mixing of Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium. The collision between two Bose-Einstein condensates produces a scattering halo populated by pairs of atoms of opposing velocities, which we divide into several symmetric zones. We show that the atom number difference for opposing zones has(More)
The Cauchy-Schwarz (CS) inequality-one of the most widely used and important inequalities in mathematics-can be formulated as an upper bound to the strength of correlations between classically fluctuating quantities. Quantum-mechanical correlations can, however, exceed classical bounds. Here we realize four-wave mixing of atomic matter waves using colliding(More)
A technique to simulate the grand canonical ensembles of interacting Bose gases is presented. Results are generated for many temperatures by averaging over energy-weighted stochastic paths, each corresponding to a solution of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with phase noise. The stochastic gauge method used relies on an off-diagonal coherent-state(More)
The calculation of quantum dynamics is currently a central issue in theoretical physics, with diverse applications ranging from ultracold atomic Bose-Einstein condensates to condensed matter, biology, and even astrophysics. Here we demonstrate a conceptually simple method of determining the regime of validity of stochastic simulations of unitary quantum(More)
We investigate the atom-optical analog of degenerate four-wave mixing by colliding two Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium. The momentum distribution of the scattered atoms is measured in three dimensions. A simple analogy with photon phase matching conditions suggests a spherical final distribution. We find, however, that it is an ellipsoid with(More)
We calculate the evaporative cooling dynamics of trapped one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates for parameters leading to a range of condensates and quasicondensates in the final equilibrium state, using the classical fields method. We confirm that solitons are created during the evaporation process by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, but subsequently(More)
The quantum dynamics of colliding Bose-Einstein condensates with 150,000 atoms are simulated directly from the Hamiltonian using the stochastic positive-P method. Two-body correlations between the scattered atoms and their velocity distribution are found for experimentally accessible parameters. Hanbury Brown-Twiss or thermal-like correlations are seen for(More)
The recent Letter [1] describes full quantum simulations of a dark soliton in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a regime where the system cannot be described by the per-turbative approach. The authors argue, based on the filling in of the two-point correlator g (2) , that a photograph of a condensate would reveal a smooth atomic density without any localized(More)
We show that solitons occur generically in the thermal equilibrium state of a weakly interacting elongated Bose gas, without the need for external forcing or perturbations. This reveals a major new quality to the experimentally widespread quasicondensate state, usually thought of as primarily phase-fluctuating. Thermal solitons are seen in uniform 1D,(More)