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Systemically administered phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides can specifically affect the expression of their target genes, which affords an exciting new strategy for therapeutic intervention. Earlier studies point to a major role of the liver in the disposition of these oligonucleotides. The aim of the present study was to identify the cell(More)
Binding of the Tat protein to TAR RNA is necessary for viral replication of HIV-1. We screened the Available Chemicals Directory (ACD) to identify ligands to bind to a TAR RNA structure using a four-step docking procedure: rigid docking first, followed by three steps of flexible docking using a pseudobrownian Monte Carlo minimization in torsion angle space(More)
3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose or Quip3NAc is an unusual dideoxy sugar found in the O-antigens of various Gram-negative bacteria and in the S-layer glycoprotein glycans of some Gram-positive bacteria. It is produced in these organisms as a dTDP-linked sugar, with five enzymes ultimately required for its biosynthesis. The focus of this investigation(More)
L-colitose is a 3,6-dideoxysugar found in the O-antigens of some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and in marine bacteria such as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis. The focus of this investigation, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3-dehydratase, catalyzes the third step in colitose production, which is the removal of the hydroxyl group at C3' of(More)
Perosamine or 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy- d-mannose is an unusual sugar found in the O-antigens of some Gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae O1 (the causative agent of cholera) or Escherichia coli O157:H7 (the leading cause of food-borne illnesses). It and similar deoxysugars are added to the O-antigens of bacteria via the action of glycosyltransferases(More)
All human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs contain a sequence known as TAR (trans-activating responsive sequence). The TAR element forms a stable RNA stem-loop structure which binds the HIV tat (trans-activator) protein and mediates increased viral gene expression. In principle, molecules which bind to the TAR RNA structure would inhibit trans-activation by(More)
The biological importance of proteins and nucleic acids in the natural world is undeniable, and research efforts on these macromolecules have often overshadowed those directed at carbohydrates. It is now known, however, that carbohydrates not only play roles in energy storage and plant cell wall structure, but are also intimately involved in such processes(More)
Di- and trideoxysugars are an important class of carbohydrates synthesized by certain plants, fungi, and bacteria. Colitose, for example, is a 3,6-dideoxysugar found in the O-antigens of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Vibrio cholerae, among others. These types of dideoxysugars are(More)
Colitose is a dideoxysugar found in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide that coats the outer membrane of some Gram-negative bacteria. Four enzymes are required for its production starting from D-mannose-1-phosphate and GTP. The focus of this investigation is GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose 3-dehydratase or ColD, which catalyzes the removal of the(More)
N-Acetylperosamine is an unusual dideoxysugar found in the O-antigens of some Gram-negative bacteria, including the pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O157:H7. The last step in its biosynthesis is catalyzed by PerB, an N-acetyltransferase belonging to the left-handed β-helix superfamily of proteins. Here we describe a combined structural and functional(More)