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We have used a previously described 17-mer phosphorothioate (Monia, B.P., Johnston, J.F., Ecker, D. J., Zounes, M.A., Lima, W.F., and Freier, S.M. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 19954-19962) for structure-function analysis of 2'-sugar modifications including 2'-O-methyl, 2'-O-propyl, 2'-O-pentyl, and 2'-fluoro. These modifications were analyzed for(More)
Systemically administered phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides can specifically affect the expression of their target genes, which affords an exciting new strategy for therapeutic intervention. Earlier studies point to a major role of the liver in the disposition of these oligonucleotides. The aim of the present study was to identify the cell(More)
All human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs contain a sequence known as TAR (trans-activating responsive sequence). The TAR element forms a stable RNA stem-loop structure which binds the HIV tat (trans-activator) protein and mediates increased viral gene expression. In principle, molecules which bind to the TAR RNA structure would inhibit trans-activation by(More)
2'-O-(2-Methoxyethyl)-RNA (MOE-RNA) is a nucleic acid analog with promising features for antisense applications. Compared with phosphorothioate DNA (PS-DNA), the MOE modification offers improved nuclease resistance, enhanced RNA affinity, improved cellular uptake and intestinal absorption, reduced toxicity and immune stimulation. The crystal structure of a(More)
Bacillithiol (BSH) has been prepared on the gram scale from the inexpensive starting material, D-glucosamine hydrochloride, in 11 steps and 8-9% overall yield. The BSH was used to survey the substrate and metal-ion selectivity of FosB enzymes from four Gram-positive microorganisms associated with the deactivation of the antibiotic fosfomycin. The in vitro(More)
Perosamine (4-amino-4,6-dideoxy- d-mannose), or its N-acetylated form, is one of several dideoxy sugars found in the O-antigens of such infamous Gram-negative bacteria as Vibrio cholerae O1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. It is added to the bacterial O-antigen via a nucleotide-linked version, namely GDP-perosamine. Three enzymes are required for the(More)
As part of a continued effort to identify inhibitors of hepatitis C viral (HCV) replication, we report here the synthesis and evaluation of a series of nucleoside analogues and their corresponding triphosphates. Nucleosides were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HCV RNA replication in a cell-based, subgenomic replicon system, while nucleoside(More)
In search of active nucleoside 5'-triphosphate mimics, we have synthesized a series of AZT triphosphate mimics (AZT P3Ms) and evaluated their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase as well as their stability in fetal calf serum and in CEM cell extracts. Reaction of AZT with 2-chloro-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin-4-one, followed by treatment of(More)
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are prodrugs which require three intracellular phosphorylation steps to yield their corresponding, biologically active, nucleoside triphosphate. In order to circumvent this often inefficient phosphorylation cascade, a plausible approach is to provide the active species directly in the form of a stabilized(More)