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Studies of cell lineage in the rat cerebral cortex have provided new insights into the mechanisms of neuronal and glial determination. They have shown that clonally related cells, marked with retrovirus injection at embryonic day 16 (E16), express the same glial or neuronal phenotype, suggesting that separate progenitors for each of these cell phenotypes… (More)
An IN VITRO antimalarial test, utilising the inhibition of uptake of [G- (3)H]-hypoxanthine into PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM cultured in human blood, has been used to assess the activity of crude extracts of ARTEMISIA ANNUA and A. VULGARIS (Compositae) and of BRUCEA JAVANICA, AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA, and SIMABA CEDRON (Simaroubaceae).
Fourteen quassinoids, obtained from simaroubaceous plants, were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity. All of these inhibited the incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine into Plasmodium falciparum in vitro at concentrations below 0.41 microgram ml-1. The two most potent quassinoids, bruceantin and simalikalactone D, showed 50% inhibitory concentration values… (More)
Health risk assessments often do not take into account the unique aspects of evaluating exposures to arsenic in soil. For example, risks from ingestion of arsenic in soil are often based on toxicity factors derived from studies of arsenic (soluble arsenate or arsenite) in drinking water. However, the toxicity of arsenic in drinking water cannot be directly… (More)
Extracts of Brucea javanica fruit have been prepared and monitored for their in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities. The antimalarial activity of the fruit was found to be attributable to its quassinoid constituents. Nine of the quassinoids possessed in vitro IC50 values between 0.046-0.0008 microgram/ml against the chloroquine resistant Plasmodium… (More)
We review recent publications by Hopenhayn-Rich et al. and Smith et al. regarding two critical issues in arsenic risk assessment: the role of methylation in the dose-response relationship and the role of internal cancers. Hopenhayn-Rich et al. applied simple linear regression to data from several studies to determine whether the percentage of inorganic… (More)
lites after repeated ingestion of sodium metaarsenite by volunteers. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide-and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabo-lites in urine and hair. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 50:606-612 (1989). micronuclei in exfoliated bladder cells of persons who chronically ingest… (More)
Extracts prepared from Simarouba amara fruits collected in Panama have been found to be active against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Four active quassinoids have been identified as ailanthinone, 2'-acetylglaucarubinone, glaucarubinone and holacanthone.