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Posttranslational modifications of histone N-terminal tails impact chromatin structure and gene transcription. While the extent of histone acetylation is determined by both acetyltransferases and deacetylases, it has been unclear whether histone methylation is also regulated by enzymes with opposing activities. Here, we provide evidence that LSD1(More)
Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (EGFR/ERBB1, ERBB2/HER2, ERBB3/HER3 and ERBB4/HER4) are key targets for inhibition in cancer therapy. Critical for activation is the formation of an asymmetric dimer by the intracellular kinase domains, in which the carboxy-terminal lobe (C lobe) of one kinase domain induces an active conformation in(More)
The mechanism by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated upon dimerization has eluded definition. We find that the EGFR kinase domain can be activated by increasing its local concentration or by mutating a leucine (L834R) in the activation loop, the phosphorylation of which is not required for activation. This suggests that the kinase(More)
Neurodegenerative tauopathies characterized by hyperphosphorylated tau include frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reducing tau levels improves cognitive function in mouse models of AD and FTDP-17, but the mechanisms regulating the turnover of pathogenic tau are unknown. We found that tau(More)
The transcriptional coactivator p300/CBP (CREBBP) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that regulates gene expression by acetylating histones and other transcription factors. Dysregulation of p300/CBP HAT activity contributes to various diseases including cancer. Sequence alignments, enzymology experiments and inhibitor studies on p300/CBP have led to(More)
Rtt109, also known as KAT11, is a recently characterized fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that modifies histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) to promote genome stability. Rtt109 does not show sequence conservation with other known HATs and depends on association with either of two histone chaperones, Asf1 or Vps75, for HAT activity. Here we report the(More)
It is well established that the activity of chromatin-modifying enzymes is crucial for regulating gene expression associated with hippocampal-dependent memories. However, very little is known about how these epigenetic mechanisms influence the formation of cortically dependent memory, particularly when there is competition between opposing memory traces,(More)
SEVERAL issues pertinent to the validation of screening tests and to the evaluation of screening programmes have evolved, largely in the epidemiological and general laboratory scientists interested in the development and validation of carcinogen screening tests may not be fully aware of some useful concepts. The paper reviews several such concepts and their(More)
Protein serine-threonine kinase casein kinase II (CK2) is involved in a myriad of cellular processes including cell growth and proliferation through its phosphorylation of hundreds of substrates, yet how CK2 function is regulated is poorly understood. Here we report that the CK2 catalytic subunit CK2α is modified by O-linked β-N-acetyl-glucosamine(More)
The improper activation of the Abl tyrosine kinase results in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The recognition of an inactive conformation of Abl, in which a catalytically important Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif is flipped by approximately 180 degrees with respect to the active conformation, underlies the specificity of the cancer drug imatinib, which is used to(More)