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The inflammatory toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of bacterial cell walls, is driven by the adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), which together mediate signaling by the endotoxin receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has long been known to enhance innate and adaptive immune responses; however, its extreme toxicity precludes its use in clinical settings. The combined toxicity and adjuvanticity of LPS have contributed to the view that immunological adjuvants need to be highly inflammatory to be maximally effective. Here, we compared the effects of(More)
The objective of this study was to develop a short-term experimental infection model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, using small oral doses of organisms. Specifically, the effect of dose size was evaluated, as well as specific tissue predilection sites for recovery of MAP. Oral doses as low as 1.5 x 10(6) CFU reliably(More)
The actions of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in vivo are likely to be positively influenced by the expression of membrane IL-4 receptors (mIL-4R) on target cells and negatively by the concentration of soluble IL-4 receptors (sIL-4R) in the extracellular environment. Inasmuch as the two forms of the mouse IL-4R are differentially encoded by alternatively spliced mRNA(More)
Nonmyeloablative conditioning has significantly reduced the morbidity associated with bone marrow transplantation. The donor hemopoietic cell lineage(s) responsible for the induction and maintenance of tolerance in nonmyeloablatively conditioned recipients is not defined. In the present studies we evaluated which hemopoietic stem cell-derived components are(More)
BACKGROUND Bone marrow (BM) chimerism has been shown to have a beneficial effect on allograft survival. We recently found that production of donor T-cells was highly correlated with induction of tolerance in minimally conditioned chimeras. In the present studies, we demonstrate that nonmyeloablative conditioning and BM cell infusion modulate innate and(More)
Soluble cytokine receptors (sCR) are generated in vivo through proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptors or by direct translation of mRNAs specifically encoding the soluble forms. Despite their widespread presence in biological fluids, the physiological role of endogenous sCR as immunoregulatory molecules is not yet well understood. In vivo,(More)
Soluble interleukin-4 receptors (sIL-4R) are truncated IL-4R molecules that are secreted into biological fluids. To gain an insight into the mechanisms that control sIL-4R synthesis in vivo and their role in the regulation of immune responses, the expression and secretion of sIL-4R in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni was studied. Splenocytes from(More)
Activated T cell death (ATCD) after peak clonal expansion is required for effective homeostasis of the immune system. Using a mouse model of T cell clonal expansion and contraction, we found that regulation of the proapoptotic kinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta plays a decisive role in determining the extent to which T cells are eliminated after(More)