Learn More
The inflammatory toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of bacterial cell walls, is driven by the adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), which together mediate signaling by the endotoxin receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has long been known to enhance innate and adaptive immune responses; however, its extreme toxicity precludes its use in clinical settings. The combined toxicity and adjuvanticity of LPS have contributed to the view that immunological adjuvants need to be highly inflammatory to be maximally effective. Here, we compared the effects of(More)
The objective of this study was to develop a short-term experimental infection model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, using small oral doses of organisms. Specifically, the effect of dose size was evaluated, as well as specific tissue predilection sites for recovery of MAP. Oral doses as low as 1.5 x 10(6) CFU reliably(More)
The efficacy of commercial (Strain 18) and field-isolate paratuberculosis vaccine preparations was investigated. The effect of prior exposure to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and the adjuvant effect of rIL-12 on vaccine efficacy were also tested. Both Strain 18 and field-isolate vaccines induced strong local, systemic and enteric IFN-gamma responses. A(More)
CD45 congenic mice have been used to study stem cell engraftment in the absence of alloreactivity. Recently, impaired engraftment was reported in this model and attributed to weak immune reactivity. We have confirmed that there is indeed low-level reactivity mediated by CD8(+) cells and alpha beta-TCR(+) T cells. B6 (CD45.2) recipients were conditioned with(More)
Many cytokine receptors exist naturally as both membrane-bound and soluble forms. Whereas the membrane receptors have an obvious role in signal transduction, the putative immunoregulatory role played by the soluble receptors remains unclear. Although natural forms of soluble IL-4R (sIL-4R) are known to be present in the biologic fluids of normal mice, the(More)
Infection by mouse papillomavirus (PV), MmuPV1, of T cell-deficient, B6.Cg-Foxn1(nu)/J nude mice revealed that four, distinct squamous papilloma phenotypes developed simultaneously after infection of experimental mice. Papillomas appeared on the muzzle, vagina, and tail at or about day 42days post-inoculation. The dorsal skin developed papillomas and hair(More)
The actions of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in vivo are likely to be positively influenced by the expression of membrane IL-4 receptors (mIL-4R) on target cells and negatively by the concentration of soluble IL-4 receptors (sIL-4R) in the extracellular environment. Inasmuch as the two forms of the mouse IL-4R are differentially encoded by alternatively spliced mRNA(More)
Nonmyeloablative conditioning has significantly reduced the morbidity associated with bone marrow transplantation. The donor hemopoietic cell lineage(s) responsible for the induction and maintenance of tolerance in nonmyeloablatively conditioned recipients is not defined. In the present studies we evaluated which hemopoietic stem cell-derived components are(More)