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This study was focused on a series of in vitro tests on the turbulent flow characteristics of three bileaflet aortic valves: St. Jude Medical (SJM), CarboMedics (CM), and Edwards Tekna (modified Duromedics, DM). The flow fields of the valves were measured in a pulsatile flow model with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) at the aortic sinus area downstream of(More)
One major factor of red blood cell damage induced by artificial heart valves is the magnitude of turbulent shear stresses in the flow field. An often-cited threshold for hemolysis is 400 N/m(2) (Sallam and Hwang, Biorheology 21 (1984) 783). This value, however, was measured with a one-component laser Doppler anemometer and was not calculated from the major(More)
A physical model consisting of an axisymmetrical jet in a rigid plexiglass pipe was used to study the flow and pressure fluctuations downstream from an aortic stenosis. The fluctuating velocity components, u and v, at several locations in the steady liquid jet were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer system. Simultaneous wall pressure fluctuations(More)
Coronary stents are supportive wire meshes that keep narrow coronary arteries patent, reducing the risk of restenosis. Despite the common use of coronary stents, approximately 20-35% of them fail due to restenosis. Flow phenomena adjacent to the stent may contribute to restenosis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and reconstruction based(More)
The closing velocity of the leaflets of mechanical heart valves is excessively rapid and can cause the cavitation phenomenon. Cavitation bubbles collapse and produce high pressure which then damages red blood cells and platelets. The closure mechanism of the trileaflet valve uses the vortices in the aortic sinus to help close the leaflets, which differs(More)
Among the clinical complications of mechanical heart valves (MHVs), hemolysis was previously thought to result from Reynolds stresses in turbulent flows. A more recent hypothesis suggests viscous dissipative stresses at spatial scales similar in size to red blood cells may be related to hemolysis in MHVs, but the resolution of current instrumentation is(More)
Non-physiologic turbulent flow occurs in medical cardiovascular devices resulting in hemodynamic stresses that may damage red blood cells (RBC) and cause hemolysis. Hemolysis was previously thought to result from Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in turbulent flows. A more recent hypothesis suggests that turbulent viscous shear stresses (TVSS) at spatial scales(More)
The retention behaviour of conjugated bile acids has been studied in a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) system by using the mixture of methanol and aqueous phosphate buffer as the mobile phase. The retentions of the conjugates in RP-HPLC have been found to be mainly controlled by the glycine and taurine groups. The(More)
To better understnad the characteristics of cardiovascular murmurs and turbulent energy transmission, we made simultaneous measurements of pressure (sound) and velocity fluctuations in the vicinity of surgically produced stenoses in the pulmonary artery of calves. We did a spectral analysis of these data and found an identifiable break frequency at which(More)