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We have created spatial dark solitons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in which the soliton exists in one of the condensate components and the soliton nodal plane is filled with the second component. The filled solitons are stable for hundreds of milliseconds. The filling can be selectively removed, making the soliton more susceptible to dynamical(More)
We have developed an evaporative cooling technique that accelerates the rotation of an ultracold 87Rb gas, confined in a static harmonic potential. As a normal gas is evaporatively spun up and cooled below quantum degeneracy, it is found to nucleate vorticity in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Measurements of the condensate's aspect ratio and surface-wave(More)
We report the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm in the scalable system of trapped atomic ion quantum bits. Any one of four possible states of a two-qubit memory is marked, and following a single query of the search space, the marked element is successfully recovered with an average probability of 60͑2͒%. This exceeds the performance of any(More)
Simultaneous measurement of multiple qubits stored in hyperfine levels of trapped 111 Cd + ions is realized with an intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) imager. A general theory of fluorescence detection for hyperfine qubits is presented and applied to experimental data. The use of an imager for photon detection allows for multiple qubit state(More)
We have studied the dynamics of large vortex lattices in a dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. While undisturbed lattices have a regular hexagonal structure, large-amplitude quadrupolar shape oscillations of the condensate are shown to induce a wealth of nonequilibrium lattice dynamics. When exciting an m=-2 mode, we observe shifting of lattice planes,(More)
We study the formation of large vortex aggregates in a rapidly rotating dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. When we remove atoms from the rotating condensate with a tightly focused, resonant laser, the density can be locally suppressed, while fast circulation of a ring-shaped superflow around the area of suppressed density is maintained. Thus a giant(More)
We have observed and characterized the dynamics of singly quantized vortices in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates. Our condensates are produced in a superposition of two internal states of 87Rb, with one state supporting a vortex and the other filling the vortex core. Subsequently, the state filling the core can be partially or completely removed,(More)
A vortex in a condensate in a nonspherical trapping potential will in general experience a torque. The torque will induce tilting of the direction of the vortex axis. We observe this behavior experimentally and show that by applying small distortions to the trapping potential, we can control the tilting behavior. By suppressing vortex tilt, we have been(More)
Atomic cadmium ions are loaded into radiofrequency ion traps by photoionization of atoms in a cadmium vapor with ultrafast laser pulses. The photoionization is driven through an intermediate atomic resonance with a frequency-quadrupled mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser that produces pulses of either 100-fs or 1-ps duration at a central wavelength of 229 nm. The(More)