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The extent of synchronization within and between the nuclei of the basal ganglia is unknown in Parkinson's disease. The question is an important one because synchronization will increase postsynaptic efficacy at subsequent projection targets. We simultaneously recorded local potentials (LPs) from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus(More)
Phenotypic heterogeneity in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is well documented, but there is not yet a systematic classification of the disease variants. In a previous study, we showed that the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), and two types of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)) with distinct physicochemical(More)
The latency and pattern of muscle recruitment in the startle response elicited by unexpected auditory stimulation was determined in 12 healthy subjects. Reflex EMG activity was recorded first in orbicularis oculi. This was of similar latency to the normal auditory blink reflex and, unlike the generalized startle response, persisted despite the frequent(More)
Cortical correlate of the Piper rhythm in humans. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 2911-2917, 1998. The electromyogram (EMG) of healthy humans demonstrates a tendency to rhythmic oscillations at around 40 Hz (the Piper rhythm) during strong voluntary contraction. Why motor units should discharge synchronously locked to such a high-frequency is unclear. We recorded(More)
We present a synthesis of clinical, neuropathological, and biological details of the National Institutes of Health series of 300 experimentally transmitted cases of spongiform encephalopathy from among more than 1,000 cases of various neurological disorders inoculated into nonhuman primates during the past 30 years. The series comprises 278 subjects with(More)
Ten patients with Parkinson's disease were seen following bilateral or unilateral implantation of macroelectrodes into the subthalamic nucleus. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from adjacent subthalamic nucleus macroelectrode (STNME) contacts simultaneously with EEG activity over the supplementary motor (Cz-FCz) and sensorimotor (C3/4-FC3/4)(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the mechanisms responsible for suppressing the amplitude of electromyogram (EMG) responses to a standard transcranial magnetic stimulus (TMS) after prior conditioning of the motor cortex with repetitive subthreshold TMS (rTMS) at a frequency of 1 Hz. METHODS EMG responses from the first dorsal interosseous, abductor pollicis(More)
Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and a subtype of familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), two clinically and pathologically distinct diseases, are linked to the same mutation at codon 178 (Asn178) of the prion protein gene. The possibility that a second genetic component modified the phenotypic expression of the Asn178 mutation was investigated. FFI and the(More)
When voluntary saccadic eye movements are made to a silently ticking clock, observers sometimes think that the second hand takes longer than normal to move to its next position. For a short period, the clock appears to have stopped (chronostasis). Here we show that the illusion occurs because the brain extends the percept of the saccadic target backwards in(More)
The PRNP gene, encoding the amyloid precursor protein that is centrally involved in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), has an unstable region of five variant tandem octapeptide coding repeats between codons 51 and 91. We screened a total of 535 individuals for the presence of extra repeats in this region, including patients with sporadic and familial forms of(More)