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The p27 mammalian cell cycle protein is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Both in vivo and in vitro, p27 was found to be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc2 and Ubc3 were specifically involved in the ubiquitination of p27. Compared with proliferating cells, quiescent cells exhibited a smaller(More)
A deletion map of the human Y chromosome was constructed by testing 96 individuals with partial Y chromosomes for the presence or absence of many DNA loci. The individuals studied included XX males, XY females, and persons in whom chromosome banding had revealed translocated, deleted, isodicentric, or ring Y chromosomes. Most of the 132 Y chromosomal loci(More)
The ZFY gene in the sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a protein with 13 zinc fingers, and may determine whether an embryo develops as a male or female. ZFX, a related gene on the human X chromosome, may also function in sex determination; it encodes a protein with a very similar zinc-finger domain and escapes X inactivation. ZFY and(More)
The ZFX gene on the human X chromosome is structurally similar to the ZFY gene, which may constitute the sex-determining signal on the human Y chromosome. ZFY and ZFX diverged from a common ancestral gene, as evidenced by similarities in their intron/exon organization and exon DNA sequences. The carboxy-terminal exons of ZFY and ZFX both encode 13 zinc(More)
We have isolated two genes on the human sex chromosomes, one on the Y and one on the X, that appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. These predicted RPS4Y and RPS4X proteins differ at 19 of 263 amino acids. Both genes are widely transcribed in human tissues, suggesting that the ribosomes of human males and females are structurally distinct.(More)
RPS4Y, a Y-linked gene in humans, appears to encode an isoform of ribosomal protein S4. A homologous locus on the human X chromosome, RPS4X, lies close to the X-inactivation center but fails to undergo X-inactivation. We have isolated a genomic clone from the mouse Rps4 locus, the homolog of human RPS4X. We derived an intron probe that hybridizes to the(More)
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