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A deletion map of the human Y chromosome was constructed by testing 96 individuals with partial Y chromosomes for the presence or absence of many DNA loci. The individuals studied included XX males, XY females, and persons in whom chromosome banding had revealed translocated, deleted, isodicentric, or ring Y chromosomes. Most of the 132 Y chromosomal loci(More)
The p27 mammalian cell cycle protein is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Both in vivo and in vitro, p27 was found to be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc2 and Ubc3 were specifically involved in the ubiquitination of p27. Compared with proliferating cells, quiescent cells exhibited a smaller(More)
Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis has a central role in controlling the intracellular levels of several important regulatory molecules such as cyclins, CKIs, p53, and IkappaBalpha. Many diverse proinflammatory signals lead to the specific phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitin-mediated destruction of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein IkappaBalpha. Substrate(More)
We have isolated two genes on the human sex chromosomes, one on the Y and one on the X, that appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. These predicted RPS4Y and RPS4X proteins differ at 19 of 263 amino acids. Both genes are widely transcribed in human tissues, suggesting that the ribosomes of human males and females are structurally distinct.(More)
The E6 protein of the high-risk human papillomaviruses inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53 by stimulating its ubiquitinylation and subsequent degradation. Ubiquitinylation is a multistep process involving a ubiquitin-activating enzyme, one of many distinct ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and in certain cases, a ubiquitin ligase. In human(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in a germ-line allele of the BRCA1 gene contribute to the familial breast cancer syndrome. However, the prevalence of these mutations is unknown in women with breast cancer who do not have the features of this familial syndrome. We sought BRCA1 mutations in women who were given a diagnosis of breast cancer at an early age, because early(More)
The ZFX gene on the human X chromosome is structurally similar to the ZFY gene, which may constitute the sex-determining signal on the human Y chromosome. ZFY and ZFX diverged from a common ancestral gene, as evidenced by similarities in their intron/exon organization and exon DNA sequences. The carboxy-terminal exons of ZFY and ZFX both encode 13 zinc(More)
The ZFY gene in the sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a protein with 13 zinc fingers, and may determine whether an embryo develops as a male or female. ZFX, a related gene on the human X chromosome, may also function in sex determination; it encodes a protein with a very similar zinc-finger domain and escapes X inactivation. ZFY and(More)
Invasive cervical cancer is very highly correlated with the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. Two viral proteins, E6 and E7, act in concert to subvert growth control of infected cells by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and Rb, respectively. E6 is thought to abrogate p53 function by stimulating its degradation(More)
The human RPS4X and RPS4Y genes, located on the X and Y chromosomes, appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. Haploinsufficiency of these genes may contribute to the human phenotype known as Turner syndrome. Although RPS4X maps near the X-inactivation center, the gene is expressed on inactive human X chromosomes. We cloned Rps4, the mouse homolog(More)