P. Beckmann

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To help determine if the EEG is quasiperiodic or chaotic we performed a new analysis by calculating the first positive Lyapunov exponent L1 from sleep EEG data. Lyapunov exponents measure the mean exponential expansion or contraction of a flow in phase space. L1 is zero for periodic as well as quasiperiodic processes, but positive in case of chaotic(More)
The generating mechanism of the electroencephalogram (EEG) points to the hypothesis that EEG signals derive from a nonlinear dynamic system. Hence, the unpredictability of the EEG might be considered as a phenomenon exhibiting its chaotic character. The essential property of chaotic dynamics is the so-called sensitive dependence on initial conditions. This(More)
Under selected conditions, nonlinear dynamical systems, which can be described by deterministic models, are able to generate so-called deterministic chaos. In this case the dynamics show a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, which means that different states of a system, being arbitrarily close initially, will become macroscopically separated for(More)
Conventional sleep analysis according to Rechtschaffen and Kales (1968) has provided meaningful contributions to the understanding of disturbed sleep architecture in depression. However, there is no characteristic alteration of the sleep cycle, which could serve as a highly specific feature for depressive illness. Therefore, we started to investigate(More)
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