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The contrast-to-noise ratio, known from the theory of imaging methods, is applied to magnetic resonance imaging. This ratio is proportional to the product of relative image contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio. After predetermining all intrinsic (T1 and T2 times, proton density) and extrinsic (pulse sequence, layer thickness, number of averagings)(More)
Fifty children between 3 months postnatal and 16 years of age were examined by means of a 1.5 T superconductive magnet, run at 0.35 and 1.0 T. The myelination was studied qualitatively and quantitatively (relaxation times, proton densities, image contrast). With increasing age, a decrease of T1 and proton density of white matter was found, which was(More)
The appearance of the normal lumbar spinal column was examined in spinal magnetic resonance images obtained in 50 pediatric patients aged 2 years or less. The ossification centers of the developing vertebral bodies, the cartilage, and the disks were studied with a 1.5-T imager by using both short- and long-repetition-time spin-echo sequences. Many of the(More)
Extracellular K+, Ca2+, and Na+ ([K+]e, [Ca2+]e, [Na+]e) were recorded with ion selective microelectrodes in the cerebellar cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats. Superfusion of the cerebellum with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing K-strophanthidin (10−6–10−4 mol/l) or other cardioactive steroids, known to be inhibitors of the sodium/potassium pump,(More)
22 children with myelomeningocele (MMC) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After operative closure a tethered cord was found in 78% of the patients. A primary tethered cord was detected in all patients where a lipomyelomeningocele had not been operated on yet. Additional malformations shown by MRI were hydromyelia and diastematomyelia. No(More)
Monitoring of the vital signs and the possibility of respiratory support are necessary conditions for the application of magnetic resonance imaging to infants and geriatric patients as well as during intensive care therapy. Since April 1986, 73 patients have been scanned under general anesthesia with controlled artificial ventilation in the Grosshadern(More)
MRT is a highly sensitive method for the diagnosis of childhood tumours in the posterior fossa. Since it demonstrates tumour extent better than does CT, MRT is the method of choice for radiotherapy planning. The result of treatment can be judged morphologically and by measuring relaxation times. Changes due to treatment can be recognised more easily than by(More)
A family with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and strokelike epidoses (MELAS) affecting mother, son and daughter is described. Biochemical studies on muscle biopsy specimen in one patient revealed NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) deficiency. A mitochondrial angiopathy could be demonstrated by brain and muscle biopsy. It is suggested(More)
Forty patients with anterior dislocation of the shoulder were examined in order to demonstrate Hill-Sachs defects and bony Bankart lesions. All patients had conventional radiographs of the shoulder in two planes, special views according to Hermodsson and Bernageau and CT. The examinations were evaluated by three observers. CT was regarded as the gold(More)