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The central role of the hypothalamus in the origination and/or processing of feeding-related stimuli may be modulated by the activity of other functional areas of the brain including the insular cortex (involved in enteroceptive monitoring) and the prefrontal cortex (involved in the inhibition of inappropriate response tendencies). Regional cerebral blood(More)
Obesity is accompanied by damage to several tissues. Overweight is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Whether structural abnormalities associated with excess body fat may also occur in the brain is unknown. We sought to determine to what extent excess body fat is associated with regional alterations in brain(More)
The hypothalamus has a major role in the control of food intake. However, neurotracing studies have shown that the hypothalamus receives input from several other regions of the brain that are likely to modulate its activity. Of particular interest to the understanding of human eating behavior is the possible involvement of the cortex. Using positron(More)
The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion of food play a role in(More)
Adiponectin is a collagen-like circulating protein secreted by adipocytes that is proposed to mediate obesity-related resistance to insulin. In a case-control series, we assessed the role of adiponectin in later development of type 2 diabetes in 70 patients who later developed type 2 diabetes and 70 controls, matched for body-mass index, age, and sex. Cases(More)
Obesity is predominantly caused by overeating, an abnormal behaviour for which there is no unequivocal neurophysiological explanation. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have recently emerged as new tools to search for regions of the brain that are involved in the(More)
BACKGROUND The sensation of taste provides reinforcement for eating and is of possible relevance to the clinical problem of obesity. OBJECTIVE Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to explore regions of the brain that were preferentially affected during the taste perception of a liquid meal by 11 right-handed, lean men in the fasting state. DESIGN(More)
Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific protein with putative antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory effects, were found to be decreased in Japanese individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. To further characterize the relationship(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether abnormal obese-like neural responses to a meal persist in postobese individuals, who achieved and maintained a normal body weight despite a past history of severe obesity. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS Cross-sectional study of the brain's response to tasting and consuming a satiating meal in 11 postobese (age: 40+/-6 y, body mass(More)
Knowledge of how the brain contributes to the regulation of food intake in humans is limited. We used positron emission tomography and measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) (a marker of neuronal activity) to describe the functional anatomy of satiation (i.e., the response to a liquid meal) in the context of extreme hunger (36-h fast) in 11 obese(More)