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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a circadian oscillator and a critical component of the mammalian circadian system. It receives afferents from the retina and the mesencephalic raphe. Retinal afferents mediate photic entrainment of the SCN, whereas the serotonergic afferents originating from the midbrain modulate photic responses in the SCN; however, the(More)
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelium-specific angiogenic factor strongly implicated in pathological angiogenesis. In this study, the mRNA and protein expression of the four alternatively spliced VEGF isoforms (121, 165, 189 and 206 amino acids) were(More)
PURPOSE We tested the efficacy of dasatinib, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, to prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). METHODS The effect of dasatinib on RPE sheet growth was determined by measuring enlargement of cultured RPE sheets in the presence or absence of dasatinib. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to occur as at least six differentially spliced variants, giving rise to mature isoforms containing 121, 145, 165, 183, 189 and 206 amino acids. However, little is yet known concerning the in vivo activities of this differential splicing. Stably transfected MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells were constructed that(More)
PURPOSE Human and swine retinas have morphological and functional similarities. In the absence of primate models, the swine is an attractive model to study retinal function and disease, with its cone-rich visual streak, our ability to manipulate their genome, and the differences in susceptibility of rod and cone photoreceptors to disease. We characterized(More)
Iodoacetic acid (IAA) induces photoreceptor (PR) degeneration in small animal models, however, eye size and anatomic differences detract from the usefulness of these models for studying retinal rescue strategies intended for humans. Porcine eyes are closer in size to human eyes and have a rich supply of rod and cones. This study investigated whether IAA(More)
Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. It is regulated by numerous angiogenic factors, one of the most important being vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Recently VEGF-B and VEGF-C, two new VEGF family members, have been identified that bind to the tyrosine kinase receptors flt-1 (VEGFR1), KDR (VEGFR2), and flt-4 (VEGFR3).(More)
PURPOSE Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. It is a complex, dynamic process that is coordinated by several classes of angiogenic factors. One candidate family is the Tie2 tyrosine kinase, whose expression is restricted largely to endothelial cells. Tie2 has three known ligands, angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, and Ang-4, that have(More)