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Muscarinic receptor subtypes in the airways appear to subserve different physiological functions. M1-receptors facilitate neurotransmission through parasympathetic ganglia and enhance cholinergic reflexes, but are also localized to alveolar walls. M2-receptors act as autoreceptors on post-ganglionic cholinergic nerves and inhibit acetylcholine release.(More)
Muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype, which inhibit acetylcholine release from cholinergic nerves (autoreceptors), have been described in animal and human bronchi in vitro. We investigated whether these receptors may be involved in feedback inhibition of cholinergic reflex bronchoconstriction induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2) in seven nonasthmatic atopic(More)
We have investigated whether prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors ("autoreceptors") exist on cholinergic nerves in human airways in vitro and whether guinea pig trachea provides a good model for further pharmacological characterization of these receptors. Pilocarpine was used as a selective agonist and gallamine as a selective antagonist of these(More)
In seven normal subjects we investigated whether a nonadrenergic bronchodilator nervous system is demonstrable in humans in vivo. After inhalation of leukotriene D4 (LTD4), respiratory resistance (Rrs) increased by 115 +/- 11% (SE). Subsequent inhalation of 2 nmol of capsaicin induced coughing and a fall in Rrs of 22.1 +/- 2% (P less than 0.01). However,(More)
In a double-blind randomized study, we compared the effects of the M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists pirenzepine and the nonselective antagonist ipratropium bromide on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO2) and methacholine in atopic volunteers. Both inhaled pirenzepine (70 micrograms) and ipratropium bromide (7 micrograms)(More)
We investigated whether stimulation of vagal afferent nerve fibers with inhaled capsaicin could induce a nonadrenergic inhibitory reflex in nine mild asthmatic subjects. Changes in total respiratory resistance (Rrs) were measured with a forced oscillation technique. First we induced a rise of 71 +/- 15% in Rrs (P less than 0.001) after leukotriene D4(More)
Binding studies in several species have demonstrated a high proportion of M1 muscarinic receptors in the lung but their localization is uncertain. Using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate we have confirmed that binding sites with high affinity for pirenzepine account for 50% of muscarinic receptors in the rat lung. Our functional studies using the muscarinic(More)
Several subtypes of muscarinic receptors have been identified in airways and lung parenchyma of different species, including humans. M1 receptors may be present in parasympathetic ganglia where they appear to facilitate ganglionic neurotransmission. M2 receptors seem to be located on cholinergic nerve endings where they function as "autoreceptors,"(More)
We studied the effect of ketotifen, an oral antiallergic and antihistaminic drug, on the airway and cutaneous responses to platelet-activating factor (PAF) in a double-blind, randomized, and crossover study in six normal subjects. Ketotifen (three doses of 2 mg taken during a 14-hour period before PAF) did not alter PAF-induced bronchoconstriction and did(More)
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