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BACKGROUND High density genetic maps of plants have, nearly without exception, made use of marker datasets containing missing or questionable genotype calls derived from a variety of genic and non-genic or anonymous markers, and been presented as a single linear order of genetic loci for each linkage group. The consequences of missing or erroneous data(More)
Ionic conductances underlying excitability in tonically firing neurons (TFNs) from substantia gelatinosa (SG) were studied by the patch-clamp method in rat spinal cord slices. Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (K(CA)) conductance sensitive to apamin was found to prolong the interspike intervals and stabilize firing evoked by a sustained membrane depolarization.(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known as the cholinergic part of the reticular activating system (RAS) and it plays an important role in transitions of slow-wave sleep to REM sleep and wakefulness. Although both exogenous and endocannabinoids affect sleep, the mechanism of endocannabinoid neuromodulation has not been characterized at cellular level in(More)
It is generally accepted that neurons in the ventral spinal grey matter, a substantial proportion of which can be regarded as constituents of the spinal motor apparatus, receive and integrate synaptic inputs arising from various peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sources. Thus, a profound knowledge concerning the integrative properties of interneurons in(More)
BACKGROUND Considerations in applying association mapping (AM) to plant breeding are population structure and size: not accounting for structure and/or using small populations can lead to elevated false-positive rates. The principal determinants of population structure in cultivated barley are growth habit and inflorescence type. Both are under complex(More)
The effects of synchronous photo (16 h daylength) and thermo (2 degrees C daily fluctuation) cycles on flowering time were compared with constant light and temperature treatments using two barley mapping populations derived from the facultative cultivar 'Dicktoo'. The 'Dicktoo'x'Morex' (spring) population (DM) segregates for functional differences in(More)
The type and distribution of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor-expressing neurones were studied in young (14-day-old) rats' lumbar spinal cord using pre-embedding immunohistochemistry. The heaviest immunoreactivity was observed in the middle part and lateral fourth of lamina I where the great majority of immunoreactive perikarya represented fusiform and(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system, is known to be involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids, by systemic or local administration to the pedunculopontine nucleus, can both influence sleep. We previously demonstrated that activation of astrocytes by(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known as the cholinergic part of the reticular activating system (RAS) and it plays an important role in transitions of slow wave sleep to REM sleep and wakefulness. Although both exogenous and endocannabinoids affect sleep, the mechanism of endocannabinoid neuromodulation has not been characterized at cellular level in(More)
The regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) is a constituent of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) macromolecular complexes with a major role in regulation of GPCR activity in the central nervous system. Previous in situ hybridization and Western blot studies revealed that RGS9-2 is expressed in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In the(More)