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Actin is an abundant component of nerve terminals that has been implicated at multiple steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle, including reversible anchoring, exocytosis, and recycling of synaptic vesicles. In the present study we used the lamprey reticulospinal synapse to examine the role of actin at the site of synaptic vesicle recycling, the endocytic zone.(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy were long viewed as independent, parallel degradation systems with no point of intersection. By now we know that these degradation pathways share certain substrates and regulatory molecules and show coordinated and compensatory function. Two ubiquitin-like protein conjugation pathways were discovered that are(More)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are accompanied by selective neuronal loss in the brain. We examined the regional and subcellular immunolocalization of ubiquitin, proteasomal subunits, and the heat-shock protein Hsp72 in control, CJD, and AD cases. In control and non-affected areas of disease cases, 20S proteasomes, 19S regulatory(More)
Two pathways are responsible for the majority of regulated protein catabolism in eukaryotic cells: the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosomal self-degradation through autophagy. Both processes are necessary for cellular homeostasis by ensuring continuous turnover and quality control of most intracellular proteins. Recent studies established that(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a widely used recreational drug known to cause selective long-term serotonergic damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrastructure of serotonergic pericarya and proximal neurites in the dorsal raphe nucleus as well as the ultrastructure of serotonergic axons in the frontal cortex of(More)
Evidence for the direct binding of pyruvate kinase to tubulin/microtubule and for the inhibitory effect of phosphoenolpyruvate on tubulin-enzyme hetero-association were provided by surface plasmon resonance and pelleting experiments. Electron microscopy revealed that pyruvate kinase induces depolymerization of paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules into large(More)
Our aim was to investigate and to compare the intracellular distribution of ubiquitin, 20S proteasome, and all six proteasomal regulatory ATPases in non-diseased human and rat brains. Ubiquitin and ATPases S4 and S7 show dominant nuclear immunostaining, whereas subunits S6a, S6b, and S10b show mainly cytoplasmic immunostaining in both species. However, S8(More)
The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in mediating the immunosuppressory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has recently attracted remarkable scientific interest. The aim of this work was to analyze the transport mechanisms of membrane and cytoplasmic components between T lymphocytes and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs), by focusing on the(More)
Tubulin polymerization promoting proteins (TPPPs) constitute a eukaryotic protein family. There are three TPPP paralogs in the human genome, denoted as TPPP1-TPPP3. TPPP1 and TPPP3 are intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) that bind and polymerize tubulin and stabilize microtubules, but TPPP2 does not. Vertebrate TPPPs originated from the ancient(More)
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