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The aim of this study was to establish and validate a practical method to disperse nanoparticles in physiological solutions for biological in vitro and in vivo studies. TiO2 (rutile) dispersions were prepared in distilled water, PBS, or RPMI 1640 cell culture medium. Different ultrasound energies, various dispersion stabilizers (human, bovine, and mouse(More)
OBJECTIVES Although ambient nanoparticles have been shown to exert prothrombotic effects, manufactured nanoparticles are in this aspect less well investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of diesel, titanium dioxide rutile, and single-walled carbon nanotube nanoparticles on (i) platelet activation in vitro and (ii) on macro-(More)
Although different nanosized materials, including quantum dots (QDs), are intended to be used for biomedical applications, their interactions with microvessels and their inflammatory potential are largely unknown. In this in vivo study we report that leukocyte recruitment is modulated in the presence of quantum dots. We found that the surface chemistry of(More)
Endothelial barrier dysfunction is a hallmark of many severe pathologies, including sepsis or atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has increasingly been suggested to counteract endothelial leakage. Surprisingly, the precise in vivo relevance of these observations has never been evaluated. Thus, we aimed to clarify(More)
SUMMARY BACKGROUND The translocation of nanoparticles in the lung toward effector organs via the circulation is considered an important direct pathway for systemic effects of nanoparticles after inhalation. Recently, we have reported that a moderate dose of systemically administered nanosized carbon black particles exerted thrombogenic effects in hepatic(More)
OBJECTIVE Although the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Ccl2/JE/MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (Ccl3/MIP-1alpha) have recently been implicated in neutrophil migration, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS Stimulation of the mouse cremaster muscle with Ccl2/JE/MCP-1 or Ccl3/MIP-1alpha(More)
Although carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) have been shown to exert prothrombotic effects in microvessels, it is poorly understood whether CBNs also have the potential to interfere with the process of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and whether the shape of CBNs plays a role in these processes. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the acute(More)
Directional migration of transmigrated leukocytes to the site of injury is a central event in the inflammatory response. Here, we present an in vivo chemotaxis assay enabling the visualization and quantitative analysis of subtype-specific directional motility and polarization of leukocytes in their natural 3D microenvironment. Our technique comprises the(More)
In the present study, the role of gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9)] for leukocyte rolling, adherence, and transmigration was analyzed in the mouse cremaster muscle under different inflammatory conditions including ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and stimulation with MIP-1alpha or platelet-activating factor (PAF). Using zymography, we(More)
Endothelial hyperpermeability followed by edema formation is a hallmark of many severe disorders. Effective drugs directly targeting endothelial barrier function are widely lacking. We hypothesized that the hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) extract WS® 1442, a proven multi-component drug against moderate forms of heart failure, would prevent vascular leakage by(More)