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Previous research shows that text entry by gaze using dwell time is slow, about 5-10 words per minute (wpm). These results are based on experiments with novices using a constant dwell time, typically between 450 and 1000 ms. We conducted a longitudinal study to find out how fast novices learn to type by gaze using an adjustable dwell time. Our results show(More)
In eye typing, a full on-screen keyboard often takes a lot of space because the inaccuracy in eye tracking requires big keys. We propose " scrollable keyboards " where one or more rows are hidden to save space. Results from an experiment with 8 expert participants show that the typing speed reduced by 51.4% for a 1-row keyboard and 25.3% for a 2-row(More)
Dasher is one of the best known inventions in the area of text entry in recent years. It can be used with many input devices, but studies on user performance with it are still scarce. We ran a longitudinal study where 12 participants transcribed Finnish text with Dasher in ten 15-minute sessions using a Tobii 1750 eye tracker as a pointing device. The mean(More)
Proactive computing reinforces the need for non-command interfaces that fulfill the user's intentions without explicit commands. Eye gaze is a natural modality to be used in this connection, because it is also used proactively in everyday life. Previously eye-tracking has been used mostly for research purposes or in applications targeted for users with(More)
Eye typing provides a means of communication that is especially useful for people with disabilities. However, most related research addresses technical issues in eye typing systems, and largely ignores design issues. This paper reports experiments studying the impact of auditory and visual feedback on user performance and experience. Results show that(More)
We used eye-tracking to study 28 users when they evaluated result lists produced by web search engines. Based on their different evaluation styles, the users were divided into economic and exhaustive evaluators. Economic evaluators made their decision about the next action (e.g., query re-formulation, following a link) faster and based on less information(More)
Eye-aware applications have existed for long, but mostly for very special and restricted target populations. We have designed and are currently implementing an eye-aware application, called iDict, which is a general-purpose translation aid aimed at mass markets. iDict monitors the user's gaze path while s/he is reading text written in a foreign language.(More)