Learn More
Most unmyelinated nociceptive neurons that mediate pain and temperature sensation from the skin bind isolectin B4 (IB4)-lectin and express Ret, the common signaling component of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. One of these factors, neurturin, is expressed in the epidermis, whereas its GDNF family receptor alpha2 (GFRalpha2) is(More)
Uncovering the origin and nature of phenotypic variation within species is the first step in understanding variation between species. Mouse models with altered activities of crucial signal pathways have highlighted many important genes and signal networks regulating the morphogenesis of complex structures, such as teeth. The detailed analyses of these(More)
The ectodysplasin (Eda) signaling pathway consists of a TNF-like ligand Eda, its receptor Edar, and an adaptor protein Edaradd and its activation leads to NF-κB mediated transcription. In humans, mutations in the EDA pathway genes cause hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a disorder characterized by defective formation of hair follicles, teeth, and several(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor (GFRalpha) 4, the binding receptor for persephin, is coexpressed with the signaling Ret receptor tyrosine kinase predominantly in thyroid calcitonin-producing C cells. We show by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that the functional, glycolipid-anchored form of GFRalpha4 is produced in(More)
In hair follicle development, a placode-derived signal is believed to induce formation of the dermal condensation, an essential component of ectodermal organs. However, the identity of this signal is unknown. Furthermore, although induction and patterning of hair follicles are intimately linked, it is not known whether the mesenchymal condensation is(More)
Epithelial reorganization involves coordinated changes in cell shapes and movements. This restructuring occurs during formation of placodes, ectodermal thickenings that initiate the morphogenesis of epithelial organs including hair, mammary gland, and tooth. Signaling pathways in ectodermal placode formation are well known, but the cellular mechanisms have(More)
Ductal growth of the mammary gland occurs in two distinct stages. The first round of branching morphogenesis occurs during embryogenesis, and the second round commences at the onset of puberty. Currently, relatively little is known about the genetic networks that control the initial phases of ductal expansion, which, unlike pubertal development, proceeds(More)
The explant culture techniques of embryonic tissues allow continuous monitoring of organ growth and morphogenesis ex vivo. The effect of growth factors and other soluble molecules can be examined by applying them to the culture medium. Relatively few studies have reported application of tissue culture techniques to analysis of embryonic mammary glands. Here(More)
Mammary gland development commences during embryogenesis with the establishment of a species typical number of mammary primordia on each flank of the embryo. It is thought that mammary cell fate can only be induced along the mammary line, a narrow region of the ventro-lateral skin running from the axilla to the groin. Ectodysplasin (Eda) is a tumor necrosis(More)
Next page: Dry translation from not so dry Northern Karelian dialect: Have I the face to talk to You? I have almost died and tipped over in this company, and it would be lighter to walk if I got more money. Ilikijääkö Teile huastoo? Mie oon melekee kuolta keikahtana tiällä virmassa ja miusta ois keppiimp käyvä, jos sais lissää rahhoo.