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Multispecific proteins play a major role in controlling various functions such as signaling, regulation of transcription/translation, and immune response. Hence, a thorough understanding of the atomic-level principles governing multispecific interactions is important not only for the advancement of basic science but also for applied research such as drug(More)
Ras is a small GTP-binding protein that is an essential molecular switch for a wide variety of signaling pathways including the control of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In the GTP-bound state, Ras can interact with its effectors, triggering various signaling cascades in the cell. In the GDP-bound state, Ras looses its ability to(More)
Protein design methods have been originally developed for the design of monomeric proteins. When applied to the more challenging task of protein–protein complex design, these methods yield suboptimal results. In particular, they often fail to recapitulate favorable hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions across the interface. In this work, we aim to(More)
Computational prediction of stabilizing mutations into monomeric proteins has become an almost ordinary task. Yet, computational stabilization of protein–protein complexes remains a challenge. Design of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is impeded by the absence of an energy function that could reliably reproduce all favorable interactions between the(More)
Predicting mutations that enhance protein-protein affinity remains a challenging task, especially for high-affinity complexes. To test our capability to improve the affinity of such complexes, we studied interaction of acetylcholinesterase with the snake toxin, fasciculin. Using the program ORBIT, we redesigned fasciculin's sequence to enhance its(More)
Learning to control, protein-binding specificity is useful for both fundamental and applied biology. In fundamental research, better understanding of complicated signaling networks could be achieved through engineering of regulator proteins to bind to only a subset of their effector proteins. In applied research such as drug design, nonspecific binding(More)
Manipulations of PPIs (protein-protein interactions) are important for many biological applications such as synthetic biology and drug design. Combinatorial methods have been traditionally used for such manipulations, failing, however, to explain the effects achieved. We developed a computational method for prediction of changes in free energy of binding(More)
Our understanding of protein evolution would greatly benefit from mapping of binding landscapes, i.e., changes in protein-protein binding affinity due to all single mutations. However, experimental generation of such landscapes is a tedious task due to a large number of possible mutations. Here, we use a simple computational protocol to map the binding(More)
Understanding the energetics and architecture of protein-binding interfaces is important for basic research and could potentially facilitate the design of novel binding domains for biotechnological applications. It is well accepted that a few key residues at binding interfaces (binding hot spots) are responsible for contributing most to the free energy of(More)
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