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In contrast to the roles played by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, the presence and functions of basophils, mast cells/eosinophilic granule cells, eosinophils and rodlet cells in teleosts are areas of controversy. The tissue distribution of mast cells/eosinophilic granule cells in species from a certain genus shows a characteristic(More)
During the last 10 to 20 years vaccination has become established as an important method for prevention of infectious diseases in farmed fish, mainly salmonid species. So far, most commercial vaccines have been inactivated vaccines administered by injection or immersion. Bacterial infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio sp., Aeromonas(More)
During the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. According to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow(More)
Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a disease of yet unknown etiology characterized by a necrotizing myocarditis involving the atrium and the spongious part of the heart ventricle. Here, we report the identification of a double-stranded RNA virus likely belonging to the family Totiviridae as the causative(More)
Infectious anaemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was studied by recording gross and light microscopic changes, and the development of lesions was studied in relation to haematocrit values. Gross lesions were characterised by ascites formation, congestion and enlargement of liver and spleen, congestion of the foregut and petechiae in the peritoneum.(More)
Betanodavirus, a small positive-sense bipartite RNA virus notoriously affecting marine aquaculture worldwide has been extensively studied in vitro. However, impending studies in elucidating virus-host interactions have been limiting due to the lack of appropriate animal disease models. Therefore, in this study, we have attempted to successfully establish(More)
Forty-seven paired specimens of ileum and mesenterial lymph nodes from goats originating from 2 herds with paratuberculosis were investigated. Culture of the specimens for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was compared with Ziehl-Neelsen staining and with immunohistochemical tests on paraffin-embedded tissue sections, using a M. paratuberculosis immune serum(More)
Infectious pancreatic necrosis viruses (IPNVs) exhibit a wide range of virulence in salmonid species. In previous studies, we have shown that the amino acid residues at positions 217 and 221 in VP2 are implicated in virulence. To pinpoint the molecular determinants of virulence in IPNV, we generated recombinant IPNV strains using the cRNA-based(More)
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a prototype virus of the family Birnaviridae, exhibits a high degree of antigenic variability, pathogenicity and virulence in salmonid species. The Genomic Segment A encodes all the structural (VP2 and VP3) and nonstructural (NS) proteins, whereas Segment B encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). We(More)
The present study was performed as a time course study of fish vaccinated with 20 microg plasmid DNA vaccine encoding either the VHSV G-protein or the VHSV N-protein. Samples of the injection site were collected sequentially over a 7-week period. The study revealed an intense positive staining by immunohistochemistry for the viral G-protein mainly in the(More)