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We describe a learning-based method for low-level vision problems—estimating scenes from images. We generate a synthetic world of scenes and their corresponding rendered images, modeling their relationships with a Markov network. Bayesian belief propagation allows us to efficiently find a local maximum of the posterior probability for the scene, given an(More)
This study assesses the performance of public-domain automated methodologies for MRI-based segmentation of the hippocampus in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Structural MR images of 54 age- and gender-matched healthy elderly individuals, subjects with probable AD, and subjects with MCI were collected at(More)
A recently identified variant within the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is carried by 46% of Western Europeans and is associated with an approximately 1.2 kg higher weight, on average, in adults and an approximately 1 cm greater waist circumference. With >1 billion overweight and 300 million obese persons worldwide, it is crucial to understand(More)
PURPOSE To examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) by using continuous arterial spin-labeling (CASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was approved by the local institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA regulations. Informed consent was(More)
BACKGROUND Lack of clear understanding remains on the overlapping atrophy patterns of aging and early Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in gray matter (GM) of the brain in vivo. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the independent and overlapping patterns of GM atrophy in normal aging and AD. METHODS A total of 169 cognitively normal subjects and 33 persons with(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have identified effects of age and vascular risk factors on brain injury in elderly individuals. We aimed to establish whether the effects of high blood pressure in the brain are evident as early as the fifth decade of life. METHODS In an investigation of the third generation of the Framingham Heart Study, we approached all(More)
We construct a computational framework for automatic central nervous system (CNS) disease discrimination using high resolution Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of human brains. More than 3000 MR image features are extracted, forming a high dimensional coarse-to-fine hierarchical image description that quantifies brain asymmetry, texture and statistical(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in normal cognitive-performing subjects with hypertension (HTN) using continuous arterial spin-labeled MRI. The most common explanation for the effect of blood pressure on cognition is that HTN increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease, and it may(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate how a measure of educational and occupational attainment, a component of cognitive reserve, modifies the relationship between biomarkers of pathology and cognition in Alzheimer's disease. The biomarkers evaluated quantified neurodegeneration via atrophy on magnetic resonance images, neuronal injury via cerebral(More)
Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) reflect small vessel disease, are common in elderly individuals, and are associated with cognitive impairment. We sought to determine the relationships between WMLs, age, gray matter (GM) volume, and cognition in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). From the Cardiovascular Health Study we selected 740 cognitively(More)