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Tag clouds provide an aggregate of tag-usage statistics. They are typically sent as in-line HTML to browsers. However, display mechanisms suited for ordinary text are not ideal for tags, because font sizes may vary widely on a line. As well, the typical layout does not account for relationships that may be known between tags. This paper presents models and(More)
Bitmap indexes must be compressed to reduce input/output costs and minimize CPU usage. To accelerate logical operations (AND, OR, XOR) over bitmaps, we use techniques based on run-length encoding (RLE), such as Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) compression. These techniques are sensitive to the order of the rows: a simple lexicographical sort can divide the index(More)
Computer-assisted reading and analysis of text has applications in the humanities and social sciences. Ever-larger electronic text archives have the advantage of allowing a more complete analysis but the disadvantage of forcing longer waits for results. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) allows quick analysis of multidi-mensional data. By storing(More)
SUMMARY Bitmap indexes are commonly used in databases and search engines. By exploiting bit-level parallelism, they can significantly accelerate queries. However, they can use much memory, and thus we might prefer compressed bitmap indexes. Following Oracle's lead, bitmaps are often compressed using run-length encoding (RLE). Building on prior work, we(More)
Bitmap indexes must be compressed to reduce input/output costs and minimize CPU usage. To accelerate logical operations (AND, OR, XOR) over bitmaps, we use techniques based on run-length encoding (RLE), such as Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) compression. These techniques are sensitive to the order of the rows: a simple lexicographical sort can divide the index(More)
Procedure inlining can be used to convert mutual recursion to direct recursion. This allows use of optimization techniques that are most easily applied to directly recursive procedures, in addition to the well-known benefits of inlining. We present tight (necessary <italic>and</italic> sufficient) conditions under which inlining can transform all mutual(More)