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The fetal and even the young brain possesses a considerable degree of plasticity. The plasticity and rate of neurogenesis in the adult brain is much less pronounced. The present study was conducted to investigate whether housing conditions affect neurogenesis, learning, and memory in adult rats. Three-month-old rats housed either in isolation or in an(More)
Electroporation is a widely used method for the introduction of polar and charged agents such as dyes, drugs, DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, and amino acids into cells. Traditionally, electroporation is performed with large electrodes in a batch mode for treatment of a large number of cells in suspension. Recently, microelectrodes that can produce extremely(More)
Excitotoxic amino acids contain two acidic groups, but cysteine represents an exception to this rule. The hypothesis that cysteine toxicity is mediated by the oxidized and diacidic metabolites cysteine sulphinate and/or cysteate was tested in the present study. The issue was approached in three different ways. Firstly, the distribution of brain injury after(More)
We show how an electrolyte-filled capillary (EFC) coupled to a high-voltage power supply can be used as a versatile electroporation tool for the delivery of dyes, drugs, and biomolecules to the cytoplasm of single cells and cells in tissues. A large-voltage pulse applied across the EFC (fused silica, 30 cm long, 375-microm o.d., 30-microm i.d.) gives rise(More)
Electroporation of single NG108-15 cells with carbon-fiber microelectrodes was characterized by patch-clamp recordings and fluorescence microscopy. To minimize adverse capacitive charging effects, the patch-clamp pipette was sealed on the cell at a 90(o) angle with respect to the microelectrodes where the applied potential reaches a minimum. From(More)
The possible role of glutamate, aspartate, sulfur-containing excitatory amino acids and gamma-glutamyl peptides as major transmitters in the rat optic nerve was evaluated. Four days following optic nerve lesion the K(+)-evoked Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release was reduced to 31 +/- 16% (+/- S.D., n = 9) comparing release from slices of the denervated(More)
An excessive activation of the excitatory amino acid system has been proposed as one possible mediator of the ischemia-induced delayed death of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Using dialytrodes in the CA1 of the rat, we have investigated multiple-unit activity and extracellular changes in acidic sulfur-containing amino acids and gamma-glutamyl(More)
Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual(More)
This study addresses the possible involvement of an agonist-induced postischemic hyperactivity in the delayed neuronal death of the CA1 hippocampus in the rat. In two sets of experiments, dialytrodes were implanted into the CA1 either acutely or chronically (24 h of recovery). During 20 min of cerebral ischemia (four-vessel occlusion model) and 8 h of(More)