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The fetal and even the young brain possesses a considerable degree of plasticity. The plasticity and rate of neurogenesis in the adult brain is much less pronounced. The present study was conducted to investigate whether housing conditions affect neurogenesis, learning, and memory in adult rats. Three-month-old rats housed either in isolation or in an(More)
Electroporation of single NG108-15 cells with carbon-fiber microelectrodes was characterized by patch-clamp recordings and fluorescence microscopy. To minimize adverse capacitive charging effects, the patch-clamp pipette was sealed on the cell at a 90(o) angle with respect to the microelectrodes where the applied potential reaches a minimum. From(More)
The possible role of glutamate, aspartate, sulfur-containing excitatory amino acids and gamma-glutamyl peptides as major transmitters in the rat optic nerve was evaluated. Four days following optic nerve lesion the K(+)-evoked Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release was reduced to 31 +/- 16% (+/- S.D., n = 9) comparing release from slices of the denervated(More)
This study addresses the possible involvement of an agonist-induced postischemic hyperactivity in the delayed neuronal death of the CA1 hippocampus in the rat. In two sets of experiments, dialytrodes were implanted into the CA1 either acutely or chronically (24 h of recovery). During 20 min of cerebral ischemia (four-vessel occlusion model) and 8 h of(More)
Individual phospholipid vesicles, 1 to 5 micrometers in diameter, containing a single reagent or a complete reaction system, were immobilized with an infrared laser optical trap or by adhesion to modified borosilicate glass surfaces. Chemical transformations were initiated either by electroporation or by electrofusion, in each case through application of a(More)
We report that GABA(A) receptors in a patch-clamped biological cell form a short-term memory circuit when integrated with a scanning-probe microfluidic device. Laminar patterns of receptor activators (agonists) provided by the microfluidic device define and periodically update the data input which is read and stored by the receptors as state distributions(More)
An excessive activation of the excitatory amino acid system has been proposed as one possible mediator of the ischemia-induced delayed death of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Using dialytrodes in the CA1 of the rat, we have investigated multiple-unit activity and extracellular changes in acidic sulfur-containing amino acids and gamma-glutamyl(More)
Excitotoxic amino acids contain two acidic groups, but cysteine represents an exception to this rule. The hypothesis that cysteine toxicity is mediated by the oxidized and diacidic metabolites cysteine sulphinate and/or cysteate was tested in the present study. The issue was approached in three different ways. Firstly, the distribution of brain injury after(More)
We have developed a novel method in which antisense DNA is selectively electroporated into individual adult neural progenitor cells. By electroporation of antisense oligonucleotides against signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) we demonstrate that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is an instructive signal for astroglial type 2 cell(More)