Learn More
The fetal and even the young brain possesses a considerable degree of plasticity. The plasticity and rate of neurogenesis in the adult brain is much less pronounced. The present study was conducted to investigate whether housing conditions affect neurogenesis, learning, and memory in adult rats. Three-month-old rats housed either in isolation or in an(More)
Electroporation is a widely used method for the introduction of polar and charged agents such as dyes, drugs, DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, and amino acids into cells. Traditionally, electroporation is performed with large electrodes in a batch mode for treatment of a large number of cells in suspension. Recently, microelectrodes that can produce extremely(More)
Electroporation of single NG108-15 cells with carbon-fiber microelectrodes was characterized by patch-clamp recordings and fluorescence microscopy. To minimize adverse capacitive charging effects, the patch-clamp pipette was sealed on the cell at a 90(o) angle with respect to the microelectrodes where the applied potential reaches a minimum. From(More)
We show how an electrolyte-filled capillary (EFC) coupled to a high-voltage power supply can be used as a versatile electroporation tool for the delivery of dyes, drugs, and biomolecules to the cytoplasm of single cells and cells in tissues. A large-voltage pulse applied across the EFC (fused silica, 30 cm long, 375-microm o.d., 30-microm i.d.) gives rise(More)
The possible role of glutamate, aspartate, sulfur-containing excitatory amino acids and gamma-glutamyl peptides as major transmitters in the rat optic nerve was evaluated. Four days following optic nerve lesion the K(+)-evoked Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release was reduced to 31 +/- 16% (+/- S.D., n = 9) comparing release from slices of the denervated(More)
We report here a rapid evaporation method that produces in high yield giant unilamellar vesicles up to 50 microns in diameter. The vesicles are obtained after only 2 min and can be prepared from different phospholipids, including L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), dipalmitoleoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, and beta-arachidonoyl gamma-palmitoyl(More)
Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual(More)
We report that 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde reacts rapidly with glutathione and its precursor, gamma-glutamylcysteine, to form highly fluorescent derivatives under physiological conditions. In contrast to previous accounts of 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde labeling of primary amines, no additional CN- ion or any other additional nucleophile is required.(More)
We have developed a novel method in which antisense DNA is selectively electroporated into individual adult neural progenitor cells. By electroporation of antisense oligonucleotides against signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) we demonstrate that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is an instructive signal for astroglial type 2 cell(More)