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The fetal and even the young brain possesses a considerable degree of plasticity. The plasticity and rate of neurogenesis in the adult brain is much less pronounced. The present study was conducted to investigate whether housing conditions affect neurogenesis, learning, and memory in adult rats. Three-month-old rats housed either in isolation or in an(More)
Electroporation is a widely used method for the introduction of polar and charged agents such as dyes, drugs, DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, and amino acids into cells. Traditionally, electroporation is performed with large electrodes in a batch mode for treatment of a large number of cells in suspension. Recently, microelectrodes that can produce extremely(More)
Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual(More)
We show how an electrolyte-filled capillary (EFC) coupled to a high-voltage power supply can be used as a versatile electroporation tool for the delivery of dyes, drugs, and biomolecules to the cytoplasm of single cells and cells in tissues. A large-voltage pulse applied across the EFC (fused silica, 30 cm long, 375-microm o.d., 30-microm i.d.) gives rise(More)
We have developed a novel method in which antisense DNA is selectively electroporated into individual adult neural progenitor cells. By electroporation of antisense oligonucleotides against signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) we demonstrate that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is an instructive signal for astroglial type 2 cell(More)
We demonstrate here that nanotube-vesicle networks can be constructed directly from plasma membranes of cultured cells. We used a combination of dithiothreitol (DTT) and formaldehyde to produce micron-sized plasma membrane vesicles that were subsequently shaped into networks using micromanipulation methods previously used on purely synthetic systems. Only a(More)
Excitotoxic amino acids contain two acidic groups, but cysteine represents an exception to this rule. The hypothesis that cysteine toxicity is mediated by the oxidized and diacidic metabolites cysteine sulphinate and/or cysteate was tested in the present study. The issue was approached in three different ways. Firstly, the distribution of brain injury after(More)
We report that 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde reacts rapidly with glutathione and its precursor, gamma-glutamylcysteine, to form highly fluorescent derivatives under physiological conditions. In contrast to previous accounts of 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde labeling of primary amines, no additional CN- ion or any other additional nucleophile is required.(More)
Single-cell electroporation was performed using electrolyte-filled capillaries on fluorescently labeled A549 cells. Cells were exposed to brief pulses (50-300 ms) at various cell-capillary tip distances. Cell viability and electroporation success were measured. In order to understand the variability in single-cell electroporation, logistic regression was(More)