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Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important mechanism of natural variation among prokaryotes. Over the full course of evolution, most or all of the genes resident in a given prokaryotic genome have been affected by LGT, yet the frequency of LGT can vary greatly across genes and across prokaryotic groups. The proteobacteria are among the most diverse of(More)
The CRISPR (clustered, regularly, interspaced, short, palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated genes) systems of archaea and bacteria provide adaptive immunity against viruses and other selfish elements and are believed to curtail horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Limiting acquisition of new genetic material could be one of the sources of the fitness cost(More)
Squalene is a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon (C30H50) with six double bonds, known as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phytosterol or cholesterol in plants or animals. We have briefly reviewed the natural sources for squalene and focused on the main methods and techniques to obtain and to determine it. Some of its applications in different(More)
The paper presents the application of a method based on coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an isotopically labelled internal standard for the quantitative analysis of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and o-, m-, p-xylenes (X). Their atmospheric concentrations were determined based on short-term sampling, in different sites of(More)
Bacterial community profile of diatom cultures 19 20. CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. It is made available under a The copyright holder for this preprint (which was. Abstract 21 The pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a model organism able to synthesise industrially-22 relevant molecules. Large-scale(More)
DNA of viral origin represents a ubiquitous element of bacterial genomes. Its integration into host regulatory circuits is a pivotal driver of microbial evolution but requires the stringent regulation of phage gene activity. In this study, we describe the nucleoid-associated protein CgpS, which represents an essential protein functioning as a xenogeneic(More)
Antarctic ice-free inland sites provide a unique perspective on the strategies coevolving organisms have developed for survival at the limits of life. Here, we provide the first combined description of the ecological and genetic diversity of lichen photobionts colonising an isolated Antarctic inland site, Coal Nunatak, on south-east Alexander Island(More)
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