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There is now ample evidence of the ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments. The responses of both flora and fauna span an array of ecosystems and organizational hierarchies, from the species to the community levels. Despite continued uncertainty as to community and ecosystem trajectories under(More)
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2 degrees C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean(More)
The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear(More)
Marine ecosystems are centrally important to the biology of the planet, yet a comprehensive understanding of how anthropogenic climate change is affecting them has been poorly developed. Recent studies indicate that rapidly rising greenhouse gas concentrations are driving ocean systems toward conditions not seen for millions of years, with an associated(More)
As atmospheric levels of CO(2) increase, reef-building corals are under greater stress from both increased sea surface temperatures and declining sea water pH. To date, most studies have focused on either coral bleaching due to warming oceans or declining calcification due to decreasing oceanic carbonate ion concentrations. Here, through the use of(More)
Many coral reefs worldwide have undergone phase shifts to alternate, degraded assemblages because of the combined effects of over-fishing, declining water quality, and the direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Here, we experimentally manipulated the density of large herbivorous fishes to test their influence on the resilience of coral assemblages(More)
All reef-forming corals depend on the photosynthesis performed by their algal symbiont, and such corals are therefore restricted to the photic zone. The intensity of light in this zone declines over several orders of magnitude--from high and damaging levels at the surface to extreme shade conditions at the lower limit. The ability of corals to tolerate this(More)
The specific identity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) from most zooxanthellate corals is unknown. In a survey of symbiotic cnidarians from the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), 23 symbiont types were identified from 86 host species representing 40 genera. A majority (Ͼ85%) of these symbionts belong to a single phylogenetic clade or(More)
Circadian regulation of plant-animal endosymbioses is complicated by a diversity of internal and external cues. Here, we show that stress-related genes in corals are coupled to the circadian clock, anticipating major changes in the intracellular milieu. In this regard, numerous chaperones are "hard-wired" to the clock, effectively preparing the coral for(More)