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Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is maturing and is being incorporated into emerging wireless broadband standards like long-term evolution (LTE) [1]. For example, the LTE standard allows for up to eight antenna ports at the base station. Basically, the more antennas the transmitter/receiver is equipped with, and the more degrees of freedom(More)
MIMO technology is a way of using multiple antennas to simultaneously transmit multiple streams of data in wireless communication systems. MIMO in cellular systems brings improvements on four fronts: • improved data rate, because the more antennas, the more independent data streams can be sent out; • improved reliability, because the more antennas the more(More)
—Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is one of the main candidates to be included in the fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. For further system development it is desirable to have real-time testbeds showing possibilities and limitations of the technology. In this paper we describe the Lund University Massive MIMO testbed – LuMaMi. It is a(More)
Very-large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), also called massive MIMO, is a new technique that potentially can offer large network capacities in multiuser scenarios, where the base stations are equipped with a large number of antennas simultaneously serving multiple single-antenna users on the same frequency. We investigate channel behavior for a(More)
In very-large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, the base station (BS) is equipped with very large number of antennas as compared to previously considered systems. There are various advantages of increasing the number of antennas, and some schemes require handling large matrices for joint processing (pre-coding) at the BS. The dirty paper coding(More)