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Modern humans have occupied almost all possible environments globally since exiting Africa about 100,000 years ago. Both behavioral and biological adaptations have contributed to their success in surviving the rigors of climatic extremes, including cold, strong ultraviolet radiation, and high altitude. Among these environmental stresses, high-altitude(More)
Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization(More)
Tibetans are well adapted to high-altitude hypoxic conditions, and in recent genome-wide scans, many candidate genes have been reported involved in the physiological response to hypoxic conditions. However, the limited sequence variations analyzed in previous studies would not be sufficient to identify causal mutations. Here we conducted resequencing of the(More)
AIM Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors(More)
Sherpas living around the Himalayas are renowned as high-altitude mountain climbers but when and where the Sherpa people originated from remains contentious. In this study, we collected DNA samples from 582 Sherpas living in Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region of China to study the genetic diversity of both their maternal (mitochondrial DNA) and paternal (Y(More)
Tibetans are well adapted to the hypoxic environments at high altitude, yet the molecular mechanism of this adaptation remains elusive. We reported comprehensive genetic and functional analyses of EPAS1, a gene encoding hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) with the strongest signal of selection in previous genome-wide scans of Tibetans. We showed that the(More)
Tibetans are well adapted to high-altitude environments. Among the adaptive traits in Tibetans, the relatively low hemoglobin level is considered a blunted erythropoietic response to hypoxic challenge. Previously, EPAS1 and EGLN1, the major upstream regulators in the hypoxic pathway, were reportedly involved in the hemoglobin regulation in Tibetans. In this(More)
BACKGROUND Sherpas, a highlander population living in Khumbu region of Nepal, are well known for their superior climbing ability in Himalayas. However, the genetic basis of their adaptation to high-altitude environments remains elusive. METHODS We collected DNA samples of 582 Sherpas from Nepal and Tibetan Autonomous Region of China, and we measured their(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of polycythemia on hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats. METHODS The healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normoxia control group (C group), hypoxia group (H group), hypoxia + different doses of human recombine hemopoietin (rEPO) group. All(More)
Maximal oxygen uptake (exercise capacity) is a vital parameter in the evaluation of adaptation to high altitude, providing an index of the integrated function of the oxygen transport system. Previous studies of maximal oxygen uptake in population at high altitude have mainly focused on adults and adolescents, though data on children are uncommon. Maximal(More)