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We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no sperm in semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90 other fertile males. The 12 deletions overlap, defining a region likely to contain one or more genes required for spermatogenesis (the Azoospermia Factor, AZF). Deletion of(More)
To avoid multiple pregnancies without compromising pregnancy rates (PR) is a challenge in assisted reproduction. We have compared pregnancy results among 74 elective one-embryo transfers (group 2) and 94 transfers where only one embryo was available (group 1). All the fresh embryo cycles during 1997 in two clinics in Helsinki were analysed, and cumulative(More)
BACKGROUND The main reason for adverse treatment outcome in assisted reproduction is the high rate of multiple pregnancies. The only strategy to avoid dizygotic twins is to transfer one embryo at a time. METHODS A total of 144 women, who had had at least four good quality embryos available after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and who had no(More)
BACKGROUND Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is an option in fertility preservation for pre-pubertal boys who will lose spermatogenic cells as a result of chemotherapy. We compared three different protocols and cryoprotectants in cryopreservation of testicular tissue. METHODS Testicular tissue obtained from 16 infertile men was evaluated by light(More)
BACKGROUND Banking of testicular tissue from pre-pubertal boys before gonadotoxic treatment is a crucial step in fertility preservation. We wanted to find optimal methods for cryopreservation of testicular tissue from pre-pubertal boys, modifying techniques developed for fetal and adult human testicular tissue cryopreservation. METHODS Testicular tissue(More)
BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines were first cultured using fetal mouse fibroblasts as feeder cells. To avoid feeders and to reduce the amount of xeno-components, Matrigel- and laminin-coated dishes, and conditioned mouse feeder cell medium have been used, and hES cells have also been cultured on human fetal muscle and skin, and adult(More)
We compared the effects of oral estradiol (2 mg), transdermal estradiol (50 microg), and placebo on measures of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins in 27 postmenopausal women at baseline and after 2 and 12 weeks of treatment. Oral and transdermal estradiol induced similar increases in serum free estradiol(More)
Ovarian cortical tissue was obtained during gynaecological operations by biopsy or after oophorectomy from 20 women aged 25-42 years. It was placed in organ culture, either fresh or following thawing after cryopreservation, for 1-4 months. The tissue was cut in slices 0.1-0.3 mm in diameter and transferred to 12 mm inserts in 24-well culture plates. These(More)
We describe a system for culturing human embryonic stem (hES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells on a recombinant form of human laminin-511, a component of the natural hES cell niche. The system is devoid of animal products and feeder cells and contains only one undefined component, human albumin. The hES cells self-renewed with normal karyotype(More)
Pieces of ovarian cortical tissue (0.3-2 mm in diameter) were obtained during gynaecological operations by biopsy or as a result of oophorectomy from 19 women aged 19-44 years. The tissue was frozen in a programmable freezer using one of two different cryoprotectants, either 1.5 M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), or a combination of 1,2-propanediol (1.5 M) and(More)