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BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines were first cultured using fetal mouse fibroblasts as feeder cells. To avoid feeders and to reduce the amount of xeno-components, Matrigel- and laminin-coated dishes, and conditioned mouse feeder cell medium have been used, and hES cells have also been cultured on human fetal muscle and skin, and adult(More)
Neuronal disorders, like Huntington's disease (HD), are difficult to study, due to limited cell accessibility, late onset manifestations, and low availability of material. The establishment of an in vitro model that recapitulates features of the disease may help understanding the cellular and molecular events that trigger disease manifestations. Here, we(More)
Signaling factors involved in CNS development have been used to control the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mesencephalic dopamine (mesDA) neurons, but tend to generate a limited yield of desired cell type. Here we show that forced expression of Lmx1a, a transcription factor functioning as a determinant of mesDA neurons during(More)
Cellular localization of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) proteins were studied in human testis samples using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of the corresponding mRNA was examined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seven men, aged 28-48 years, who underwent diagnostic testicular biopsy because of(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibits the initiation of the development and early growth of mouse ovarian follicles. Furthermore, the ovarian follicle pool diminishes prematurely in AMH-knockout mice. In this study, we examined whether AMH plays a similar role in humans, controlling ovarian follicle growth. METHODS Human ovarian cortical tissue(More)
BACKGROUND The transition from fertilized egg to embryo is accompanied by a multitude of changes in gene expression, and the transcriptional events that underlie these processes have not yet been fully characterized. In this study RNA-Seq is used to compare the transcription profiles of four early developmental stages in zebrafish (Danio rerio) on a global(More)
BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have potential use in clinical therapy and regenerative medicine. One of the major challenges regarding the application of these cells is the development of an efficient cryopreservation protocol, since current methods, which include slow-freezing-rapid thawing and vitrification of colonies in suspension,(More)
BACKGROUND We determined whether the vascular effects of estradiol depend on the route of administration by comparing the effects of oral estradiol and transdermal placebo, transdermal estradiol and oral placebo, and transdermal placebo and oral placebo on in vivo endothelial function in 27 postmenopausal women. METHODS AND RESULTS Endothelial function(More)
BACKGROUND Female cancer patients are offered 'banking' of gametes before starting fertility-threatening cancer therapy. Transplants of fresh and frozen ovarian tissue between healthy fertile and infertile women have demonstrated the utility of the tissue banked for restoration of endocrine and fertility function. Additional methods, like follicle culture(More)
BACKGROUND Controlled-rate freezing of ovarian cortical tissue for preservation of fertility among young women facing chemo- or radio-therapy is a widely accepted procedure. To improve the method for cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, particularly the stroma, we carried out a systematic comparison of vitrification versus slow programmed freezing. METHODS(More)