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This paper presents a systematic literature review of the recent (2006--2010) development of automatic assessment tools for programming exercises. We discuss the major features that the tools support and the different approaches they are using both from the pedagogical and the technical point of view. Examples of these features are ways for the teacher to(More)
A study by a ITiCSE 2001 working group ("the McCracken Group") established that many students do not know how to program at the conclusion of their introductory courses. A popular explanation for this incapacity is that the students lack the ability to problem-solve. That is, they lack the ability to take a problem description, decompose it into(More)
We examined the parasite-induced cataract formation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using slit-lamp microscopy to determine the relationship between cataract intensity and number of Diplostomum spathaceum parasites that were established in the lens. Cataract intensity increased significantly with parasite burden, but was also affected by the pattern(More)
This paper examines the efficiency of acquired resistance in protecting the fish host, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), against the trematode parasite Diplostomum spathaceum, and the hypothesis that fish recognize areas where infective stages are aggregated and show avoidance behaviour. We found that when fish with a low level of infection were held in(More)
Interaction and feedback are key factors supporting the learning process. Therefore many automatic assessment and feedback systems have been developed for computer science courses during the past decade. In this paper we present a new framework, TRAKLA2, for building interactive algorithm simulation exercises. Exercises constructed in TRAKLA2 are viewed as(More)
Immune function is potentially costly and traded-off against the expression of sexual signals, thus, making sexual advertisement a condition-dependent and honest indicator of current immunocompetence. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments using mature mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, to examine whether an immunological challenge (nylon(More)
The concentration of selenium in serum (S-Se) was studied in 20 patients and glutathione in erythrocytes (E-GSH) in 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at onset and after 3 and 6 months of antirheumatic therapy with aurothiomalate (19 cases) or with D-penicillamine (one case). The values were compared to those of age and sex matched healthy controls.(More)
Ecologically sustainable disease prevention in intensive monocultures, such as fish farming, is based on the knowledge of the ecology of parasites and the identification of the key proportion of host populations for parasite life cycles. In this paper, we examined the life cycle dynamics of the pathogenic trematode Diplostomum spathaceum at a fish farm(More)
This paper examines the relative importance of exposure and susceptibility to the infection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with the trematode parasite Diplostomum spathaceum under natural conditions. A total of 93 individually marked, similarly aged fish were introduced into three cages at regular time intervals and the intensity of infection in(More)
This paper investigated the intestinal distribution and fecundity of 2 species of Diplostomum parasites, D. spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum, in 2 species of definitive hosts, herring gull (Larus argentatus) and common gull (L. canus), using both empirical field data and experimental infections. At the level of individual hosts, the parasite species(More)