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A study by a ITiCSE 2001 working group ("the McCracken Group") established that many students do not know how to program at the conclusion of their introductory courses. A popular explanation for this incapacity is that the students lack the ability to problem-solve. That is, they lack the ability to take a problem description, decompose it into(More)
Interaction and feedback are key factors supporting the learning process. Therefore many automatic assessment and feedback systems have been developed for computer science courses during the past decade. In this paper we present a new framework, TRAKLA2, for building interactive algorithm simulation exercises. Exercises constructed in TRAKLA2 are viewed as(More)
Immune function is potentially costly and traded-off against the expression of sexual signals, thus, making sexual advertisement a condition-dependent and honest indicator of current immunocompetence. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments using mature mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, to examine whether an immunological challenge (nylon(More)
This paper presents a systematic literature review of the recent (2006--2010) development of automatic assessment tools for programming exercises. We discuss the major features that the tools support and the different approaches they are using both from the pedagogical and the technical point of view. Examples of these features are ways for the teacher to(More)
In New Zealand and Australia, the BRACElet project has been investigating students' acquisition of programming skills in introductory programming courses. The project has explored students' skills in basic syntax, tracing code, understanding code, and writing code, seeking to establish the relationships between these skills. This ITiCSE working group report(More)
Learning to program should include learning about proper software testing. Some automatic assessment systems, e.g. Web-CAT, allow assessing student-generated test suites using coverage metrics. While this encourages testing, we have observed that sometimes students can get rewarded from high coverage although their tests are of poor quality. Exploring(More)
Many trematode cercariae show distinct behavioral features, which have commonly been used in species identification in combination with morphological characteristics. However, information regarding cercariae behavior has often not been quantified in detail, or it is scattered in the literature, which is why the appropriate level of precision in behavioral(More)
The predicted increase in frequency and severity of heat waves due to climate change is expected to alter disease dynamics by reducing hosts' ability to resist infections. This could take place via two different mechanisms: (1) through general reduction in hosts' performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) through altered resource allocation(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical and laboratory effects of the substitution of protein C (PC) as an adjunct to conventional therapy in the treatment of purpura fulminans associated with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN case series. SETTING Medical and medical-surgical intensive care units of two university hospitals. PATIENTS Three patients with purpura(More)