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The first genome wide association study (GWAS) for childhood asthma identified a novel major susceptibility locus on chromosome 17q21 harboring the ORMDL3 gene, but the role of previous asthma candidate genes was not specifically analyzed in this GWAS. We systematically identified 89 SNPs in 14 candidate genes previously associated with asthma in >3(More)
The core gene of the hepatitis B virus genome contains two conserved in-phase initiation codons separated by about 90 nucleotides. This region ("the precore region") encodes largely hydrophobic amino acids. We have expressed the coding sequence of the core gene with or without the precore region by using a simian virus 40-derived vector in heterologous(More)
Recent studies suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV), despite being a DNA virus, replicates via an RNA intermediate (R. H. Miller, P. L. Marion, and S. W. Robinson, Virology 139:64-72, 1984; J. Summers and W. S. Mason, Cell 29:403-415, 1982). The HBV life cycle is therefore a permuted version of the RNA retroviral life cycle. Sequence homology between(More)
We have constructed two simian virus 40 early replacement recombinants that have the coding sequences for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). One construction, LSV-HBsAg, has the coding region for HBsAg but not the portion encoding the putative pre-surface antigen leader. Transformed monkey kidney cells (COS) infected with this recombinant express(More)
BACKGROUND Genomewide association studies identified ORMDL3 as a plausible asthma candidate gene. ORMDL proteins regulate sphingolipid metabolism and ceramide homeostasis and participate in lymphocyte activation and eosinophil recruitment. Strong sequence homology between the three ORMDL genes and ORMDL protein conservation among different species suggest(More)
Short RNA chains initiating at the major promoter sites for simian virus 40 (SV40) late transcription are elongated to approximately 450 nucleotides in a molar ammount greater than that from any other region of the viral DNA. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Transcriptional complexes isolated by Sarkosyl and by hypotonic leaching(More)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer and the core gene promoter regulate the expression of the core and polymerase genes, as well as of the 3.5-kilobase pregenomic RNA. RNA analysis and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression by plasmids carrying the HBV enhancer linked to the heterologous beta-globin or simian virus 40 early promoter demonstrated(More)
Fragments of the cloned hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome were assayed in vivo for the presence of a transcriptional enhancer element. We demonstrate that sequences positioned approximately 450 bp upstream from the HBcAg gene promoter are required for its efficient activity. These HBV stimulatory sequences activate transcription when inserted upstream to a(More)
The effect of corticosteroids (Dexamethasone) on hepatitis B virus was investigated in human hepatoblastoma cells stable transfected with recombinant HBV DNA. Dexamethasone was found to cause elevation of HBsAg, HBeAg and viral DNA production. HBV poly(A)+ RNA was significantly increased in cells treated with Dexamethasone. Furthermore, pulse labelled(More)
We have used activity gel analysis and immunoblotting to provide evidence linking the hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse transcriptase with its longest unassigned open reading frame (polymerase [Pol]-ORF). Activity gel analysis demonstrated that infectious HBV particles secreted by the Hep 2.2.15 cell line contain major (approximately 70 kilodaltons [kDa]) and(More)