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BACKGROUND Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a lipoglycan from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is an immunomodulatory molecule that stimulates the innate immune response. High levels of LPS cause excessive release of inflammatory mediators and are responsible for the septic shock syndrome. The interaction of LPS with its cognate binding proteins has(More)
We have studied the folding pathway of a beta-barrel membrane protein using outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli as an example. The deletion of the gene of periplasmic Skp impairs the assembly of outer membrane proteins of bacteria. We investigated how Skp facilitates the insertion and folding of completely unfolded OmpA into phospholipid(More)
The interactions of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) with the periplasmic chaperone Skp from Escherichia coli are not well understood. We have examined the binding of Skp to various OMPs of different origin, size, and function. These were OmpA, OmpG, and YaeT (Omp85) from Escherichia coli, the translocator domain of the autotransporter NalP from Neisseria(More)
The basic biochemical and biophysical principles by which chaperone-bound membrane proteins are targeted to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria for insertion and folding are unknown. Here we compare spontaneous folding of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli from its urea-unfolded form and from the complex with its periplasmic(More)
The pre- and postnatal environment may represent a window of opportunity for allergy and asthma prevention, and the hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents may play an important role in this regard. Using the cowshed-derived bacterium Acinetobacter lwoffii F78 together with a mouse model of experimental allergic airway inflammation, this study(More)
Although the chemical structure and physical properties of peptidoglycan have been elucidated for some time, the precise three-dimensional organization of murein has remained elusive. Earlier published computer simulations of the bacterial murein architecture modeled peptidoglycan strands in either a regular (D. Pink, J. Moeller, B. Quinn, M. Jericho, and(More)
The innate immune response is supposed to play an essential role in the control of amebic liver abscess (ALA), a severe form of invasive amoebiasis due to infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In a mouse model for the disease, we previously demonstrated that Jalpha18(-/-) mice, lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, suffer(More)
Amebic liver abscess (ALA), a parasitic disease due to infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, occurs age and gender dependent with strong preferences for adult males. Using a mouse model for ALA with a similar male bias for the disease, we have investigated the role of female and male sexual hormones and provide evidence for a strong(More)
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) encoding virulence and resistance genes are widespread in bacterial pathogens, but it has remained unclear how they occasionally jump to new host species. Staphylococcus aureus clones exchange MGEs such as S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) with high frequency via helper phages. Here we report that the S. aureus ST395(More)
In a typing system based on opsonic antibodies against carbohydrate antigens of the cell envelope, 60% of Enterococcus faecalis strains can be assigned to one of four serotypes (CPS-A to CPS-D). The structural basis for enterococcal serotypes, however, is still incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that antibodies raised against lipoteichoic acid(More)