Otto D. Simmons

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The degree to which microbes in the water column associate with settleable particles has important implications for microbial transport in receiving waters, as well as for microbial removal via sedimentation (i.e. detention basins). The partitioning behavior of several bacterial, protozoan and viral indicator organisms is explored in three urban streams(More)
Microbial association with particles can significantly affect the fate and transport characteristics of microbes in aquatic systems as particle-associated organisms will be less mobile in the environment than their free phase (i.e. unattached) counterparts. As such, similarities or dissimilarities in the partitioning behavior of indicator organisms and(More)
The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is known to occur widely in both source and drinking water and has caused waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. To improve monitoring, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed method 1622 for isolation and detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Method 1622 is performance based and involves(More)
CONTEXT Small round-structured viruses (SRSVs) are known to cause viral gastroenteritis, but until now have not been confirmed in the implicated vehicle in outbreaks. OBJECTIVE Investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak. DESIGN After applying epidemiologic methods to locate the outbreak source, we conducted environmental and laboratory investigations(More)
In this study, we introduce a Bayesian approach to address uncertainty of microbial recoveries from hollow-fiber ultrafilters (HFUF) and to determine any sources of uncertainty. Microbial recoveries were measured under twenty conditions, including two types of water, two types of ultrafilters, and five types of microorganisms. The probability distributions(More)
Association with particles in the water column can have a significant impact on microbial fate and transport. This study analyzed multiple stormwater samples taken throughout the duration of three separate storms (at two different sites) to evaluate the fraction of microbes partitioning to denser "settleable" particles and to examine how partitioning(More)
Alternative disinfection sources such as ultraviolet light (UV) are being pursued to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while simultaneously reducing the risk of exposure to carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. UV-LEDs offer a UV disinfecting source that do not contain mercury, have the(More)
Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the(More)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 is widely used to monitor source waters and drinking water supplies for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Matrix spikes, used to determine the effect of the environmental matrix on the method's recovery efficiency for the target organism, require the collection and analysis of two environmental samples, one for(More)
This research assessed the efficacy of three harvesting methods on a strain of Dunaliella viridis. While there is strong potential to use lipids from microalgae as a feedstock for biofuels to replace petroleum-based fuel, at present microalgal harvesting for biofuel production is not yet economically feasible or energy efficient. pH-induced flocculation (by(More)