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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the phenomenon in which cultured tumor cells, selected for resistance to one chemotherapeutic agent, simultaneously acquire resistance to several apparently unrelated drugs. The MDR phenotype is multifactorial. The best-studied mechanism involves the expression of a membrane protein that acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump,(More)
Besides its insulin-mimetic effects, vanadate is also known to have a variety of physiological and pharmacological properties, varying from induction of cell growth to cell death and is also a modulator of the multidrug resistance phenotype. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still not understood. The present report analyzes the mechanisms(More)
Lymphocytes activated by mitogenic lectins display changes in transmembrane potential, an elevation in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, proliferation and/or activation induced cell death. Low concentrations of ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+,K+-ATPase) suppress mitogen-induced proliferation and increases cell death. To understand the mechanisms involved, a(More)
It is widely accepted that a prolonged ouabain blockade of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase makes cells detach from each other and from the substrate, leading to their death and that cellular resistance to ouabain is due to the presence of isoforms of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with low affinity to this glycoside. In the present work the effect of reduced glutathione in the(More)
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with neoplasias and inflammatory diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1-infected individuals present a spontaneous T lymphocyte proliferation. This phenomenon is related to the(More)
Ouabain, a known inhibitor of the Na,K-ATPase, has been shown to regulate a number of lymphocyte functions in vitro and in vivo. Lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and monocyte function are all affected by ouabain. The ouabain-binding site occurs at the alpha subunit of the enzyme. The alpha subunit plays a critical role in the(More)
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