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Premature breast development (thelarche) is the growth of mammary tissue in girls younger than 8 years of age without other manifestations of puberty. Puerto Rico has the highest known incidence of premature thelarche ever reported. In the last two decades since this serious public health anomaly has been observed, no explanation for this phenomenon has(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the standard treatment for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common HAART regimen consists of the combination of at least one protease inhibitor (PI) with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Contrary to PIs, NRTIs require intracellular activation from the parent(More)
Methodology using MAE/SPME/GC-MS is being pursued for the analysis of organic pollutants in sebum. The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of standards of semi volatile organic pollutants from sebum was optimized. All compounds were extracted from sebum with recoveries analyzed by GC/MS ranging from 94% to 100% under the optimum MAE conditions: 10mL(More)
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be a direct alcohol marker and are mainly investigated in hair samples for their ability to be incorporated into this matrix from sebum. The present study used an already developed methodology to provide and confirm information about the use of FAEEs in skin surface lipids as markers of alcohol consumption. The(More)
In recent years, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the toxicologic activity of particulate matter. Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health. A considerable fraction of the urban particulate matter consists of(More)
Antiretroviral nucleoside drugs used against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been analyzed using negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS/MS). Mass fragmentation of azidothymidine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), dideoxycytidine (ddC) and dideoxythiacytidine (3TC) were obtained at(More)
The in vivo and in vitro determination of significant intracellular stavudine (d4T) triphosphate (d4TTP) concentrations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects and NS-1 cells treated with zidovudine (ZDV) has recently been reported. This study was conducted to corroborate these findings with in vivo samples from HIV-infected subjects taking(More)
A sensitive and specific method using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of ribavirin monophosphate (RBV-MP) and ribavirin triphosphate (RBV-TP) in cells has been developed and validated. In this method, ribavirin phosphorylated metabolites were extracted and separated by anion exchange solid(More)
A temperature probe based on the fluorescence properties of the two excited states of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) in equilibrium with beta-cyclodextrin (CD) in aqueous solution is presented. The fluorescence intensity of the Franck-Condon excited state (FB) as a function of temperature shows a straight line with a correlation better than 0.99(More)