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The canonical view of striatal GABAergic interneurons has evolved over several decades of neuroanatomical/neurochemical and electrophysiological studies. From the anatomical studies, three distinct GABAergic interneuronal subtypes are generally recognized. The best-studied subtype expresses the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin. The second best known(More)
Neostriatal cholinergic interneurons are believed to be important for reinforcement-mediated learning and response selection by signaling the occurrence and motivational value of behaviorally relevant stimuli through precisely timed multiphasic population responses. An important problem is to understand how these signals regulate the functioning of the(More)
In the CNS, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is synthesized and released during injury, infection, and disease, mediating inflammatory responses. However, IL-1β is also present in the brain under physiological conditions, and can influence hippocampal neuronal function. Several cell-specific IL-1-mediated signaling pathways and functions have been identified in(More)
Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway(More)
We investigated the properties of neostriatal neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing interneurons in transgenic GFP (green fluorescent protein)-NPY reporter mice. In vitro whole-cell recordings and biocytin staining demonstrated the existence of a novel class of neostriatal NPY-expressing GABAergic interneurons that exhibit electrophysiological, neurochemical, and(More)
Projection neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) convey basal ganglia (BG) processing to thalamocortical and brain stem circuits responsible for movement. Two models try to explain pathological BG performance during Parkinson disease (PD): the rate model, which posits an overexcitation of SNr neurons due to hyperactivity in the indirect pathway(More)
Striatal cell assemblies are thought to encode network states related to associative learning, procedural memory, and the sequential organization of behavior. Cholinergic neurotransmission modulates memory processes in the striatum and other brain structures. This work asks if the activity of striatal microcircuits observed in living nervous tissue, with(More)
Whole-cell recordings were obtained from tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH(+)) neurons in striatal slices from bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice that synthesize enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) selectively in neurons expressing TH transcriptional regulatory sequences. Stereological cell counting indicated that there were(More)
PREVIOUS WORK HAS SHOWN THE FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVATION OF DOPAMINE PRESYNAPTIC RECEPTORS IN SOME SUBSTANTIA NIGRA PARS RETICULATA (SNR) AFFERENTS: (i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D(1)-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. (ii)(More)
Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term potentiation(More)