Oskari Tammelin

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Cepheus is the first computer program to essentially solve a game of imperfect information that is played competitively by humans. The game it plays is heads-up limit Texas hold’em poker, a game with over 10 information sets, and a challenge problem for artificial intelligence for over 10 years. Cepheus was trained using a new variant of Counterfactual(More)
Poker is a family of games that exhibit imperfect information, where players do not have full knowledge of past events. Whereas many perfect information games have been solved (e.g., Connect Four and checkers), no nontrivial imperfect information game played competitively by humans has previously been solved. Here, we announce that heads-up limit Texas(More)
Poker is a family of games that exhibit imperfect information, where players do not have full knowledge of past events. Whereas many perfect-information games have been solved (e.g., Connect Four and checkers), no nontrivial imperfect-information game played competitively by humans has previously been solved. Here, we announce that heads-up limit Texas(More)
Counterfactual Regret Minimization and variants (e.g. Public Chance Sampling CFR and Pure CFR) have been known as the best approaches for creating approximate Nash equilibrium solutions for imperfect information games such as poker. This paper introduces CFR, a new algorithm that typically outperforms the previously known algorithms by an order of magnitude(More)
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