Oscar Vilarroya

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness, motor hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to neuroimaging data, the neural substrate underlying ADHD seems to involve fronto-striatal circuits and the cerebellum. However, there are important discrepancies between various studies, probably due(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research suggests that ADHD patients are characterized by both reduced activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during response inhibition tasks (such as the Go-NoGo task), and reduced activity in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation tasks (such as the Monetary-Incentive-Delay [MID] task). However, no prior research has(More)
The brain is a plastic entity that can undergo dynamic changes throughout the lifespan as a result of training. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly treated with psychostimulant medication, and the prevalence of ADHD medication prescription is a topic of heated scientific debate. In addition, cognitive training is frequently provided(More)
The aim of this study is to use a voxel-based morphometry protocol to compare the brains of 18 children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with those of a healthy group matched for gender and handedness. Images were acquired with a 1.5-T MRI scanner, spatially normalized, and segmented with an optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol. OCD children(More)
BACKGROUND Models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) classically emphasize the relevance of executive processes and, recently, reward circuits. The neural bases of reward processes have barely been explored in relation to this disorder, in contrast to extensive neuroimaging studies that examine executive functions in patients with ADHD. To(More)
BACKGROUND Most neuroimaging studies of specific phobia have investigated the animal subtype. The blood-injection-injury (BII) subtype is characterized by a unique biphasic psychophysiological response, which could suggest a distinct neural substrate, but direct comparisons between phobia types are lacking. METHOD This study compared the neural responses(More)
Research into child language reveals that it takes a long time for children to learn the correct mapping of colour words. Steels & Belpaeme’s (S&B’s) guessing game, however, models fast learning of words. We discuss computational studies based on cross-situational learning, which yield results that are more consistent with the empirical child language data(More)
Cases of callosal agenesis provide unique opportunities to investigate the normal role of the corpus callosum in the development of cognitive functions, including language. The only language impairment which has been consistently observed in three acallosal patients is on the retrieval of words from rhyming cues. Two new cases of callosal agenesis in(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess whether joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a risk factor for developing anxiety disorders using a 15-year prospective cohort study. METHOD The initial cohort recruited 158 subjects aged 16 to 20 years from the general population in a Spanish rural town. The cohort was studied at baseline and at a(More)
A common approach to study neuronal aspects of emotional reactivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is to study the brain response to emotional faces with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 10 BPD patients and 10 matched controls were submitted to an emotional discrimination task in which subjects had to identify an emotional face from a(More)