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Acetylcholine (ACh) plays a key role in the transitions between the different phases of sleep: Slow-wave sleep requires low ACh concentrations in the brain, whereas rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is associated with high levels of ACh. Also, these phases of sleep are differentially sensitive to a number of endogenous neuropeptides and cytokines, including(More)
In this study we have assessed the effect of the intracerebroventricular administration of anandamide (ANA) as well as its precursor metabolite arachidonic acid (AA), on the sleep-wakefulness cycle, memory formation, locomotor activity and pain perception. Our results have indicated that ANA strikingly increases slow-wave sleep (SWS)2 and rapid-eye movement(More)
Oleamide is a recently described lipid, obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats. It has been observed that oleamide possesses several biological effects, such as sleep induction, and immunological suppression as well as serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors activation. In addition, oleamide also binds to the cannabinoid(More)
Anandamide (ANA) alters sleep by increasing the amount of time spent in slow wave sleep 2 (SWS2) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) at the expense of wakefulness (W) in rats. In this report, we describe a similar effect of ANA when injected itracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or into the peduriculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and the lack of an effect(More)
A molecule isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats has been chemically characterized and identified as cis-9,10-octadecenoamide. Other fatty acid primary amides in addition to cis-9,10-octadecenoamide were identified as natural constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid of cat, rat, and human, indicating that these compounds compose a(More)
A technique for conducting free-field brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) audiometry in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats revealed a non-recruiting 18 dB elevation of click threshold in aged rats. BAEPs were first recorded in young and aged rats to clicks of equal intensity (80 dB SPL). Compared to the young group, aged animals exhibited longer wave(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces neuronal death, presumably by apoptosis. This effect may be triggered by the glycoprotein 120 (HIVgp120) released by HIV when infecting a cell, and mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Both molecules, HIVgp120 and TNFalpha, increase sleep when administered acutely in(More)
The diurnal variations of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, ANA) as well as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were detected and quantified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pons, hippocampus, and hypothalamus in the rat over 24 h using HPLC/MS. In CSF, the 3 compounds presented an increase in their concentration(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), increases food intake when injected into the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), thereby potentially activating hypothalamic nuclei involved in food intake regulation. We aimed to evaluate potential orexigenic effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide and of(More)
Oleamide is a lipid with diverse properties, including cannabinoid-like activity. For example, it induces the classic triad of effects attributable to these molecules: decrease in core temperature, hypolocomotion, and reduction in pain perception. However, as it binds to the cannabinoid receptors (CB1) only at high concentrations, it is not considered an(More)