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Recent shifts in phenology in response to climate change are well established but often poorly understood. Many animals integrate climate change across a spatially and temporally dispersed annual life cycle, and effects are modulated by ecological interactions, evolutionary change and endogenous control mechanisms. Here we assess and discuss key statements(More)
Many studies have reported statistically significant associations between bird migratory phenology and climatic variables, and, consequently, it is mostly accepted that recent shifts in migration dates are a reaction to present climate change. Impacts of weather and climate on departure date, progression and stopover frequency and duration have been(More)
This paper briefly presents the aims, requirements and results of partial least squares regression analysis (PLSR), and its potential utility in ecological studies. This statistical technique is particularly well suited to analyzing a large array of related predictor variables (i.e. not truly independent), with a sample size not large enough compared to the(More)
Remote sensing data have been used in previous studies to assess the effects of winter ecological conditions in Africa on biological parameters recorded in bird populations during the following breeding season in Europe. Based on the results of these studies, we hypothesized that a high productivity of vegetation during the winter and, thus, high resource(More)
1. The timing of bird migration has shifted in response to climate change. However, few studies have linked the potential consequences of any phenological shift on individual fitness and even fewer have disentangled the role of plasticity and microevolution in the observed shifts. 2. The arrival date and breeding success of white storks (Ciconia ciconia)(More)
It is well documented that plant and animal phenology is changing in response to recent climate warming in the Palaearctic. However, few long-term data sets are currently available in the Mediterranean basin. The present study reports long-term temporal trends of several phenophases of 45 plants, 4 insects and 6 migratory insectivorous birds. Dynamic factor(More)
In contrast to the attention attracted by temporal trends of phenology, the spatial patterns of arrivals, departures or stays of trans-Saharan birds are still nowadays largely unknown in most of their European breeding areas. In the case of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia), some studies have attempted to describe its migratory patterns throughout some(More)
There is increasing evidence that sexual selection operates in females and not only in males. However, the function of female signals in intrasexual competition has been little studied in species with conventional sex roles. In the Iberian populations of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), some females express a white forehead patch, a trait that in(More)
The spatial patterns of the variability of the appearance dates of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidea) and the small white Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) were investigated in Spain. A database of more than 7,000 records of the dates of the first spring sightings of each species in more than 700 localities from 1952-2004 was(More)
The data acquired by Remote Sensing systems allow obtaining thematic maps of the earth's surface, by means of the registered image classification. This implies the identification and categorization of all pixels into land cover classes. Traditionally, methods based on statistical parameters have been widely used, although they show some disadvantages.(More)