Osamu Takeuchi

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Infection of cells by microorganisms activates the inflammatory response. The initial sensing of infection is mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors. The intracellular signaling cascades triggered by these PRRs lead to transcriptional(More)
DNA from bacteria has stimulatory effects on mammalian immune cells, which depend on the presence of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the bacterial DNA. In contrast, mammalian DNA has a low frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and these are mostly methylated; therefore, mammalian DNA does not have immuno-stimulatory activity. CpG DNA induces a strong(More)
The innate immune system senses viral infection by recognizing a variety of viral components (including double-stranded (ds)RNA) and triggers antiviral responses. The cytoplasmic helicase proteins RIG-I (retinoic-acid-inducible protein I, also known as Ddx58) and MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard) have been(More)
Stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers activation of a common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway as well as a MyD88-independent pathway that is unique to TLR3 and TLR4 signaling pathways leading to interferon (IFN)-beta production. Here we disrupted the gene encoding a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor, TRIF. TRIF-deficient mice(More)
Type I interferons are central mediators for antiviral responses. Using high-throughput functional screening of interferon inducers, we have identified here a molecule we call interferon-beta promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1). Overexpression of IPS-1 induced type I interferon and interferon-inducible genes through activation of IRF3, IRF7 and NF-kappaB(More)
The human homologue of Drosophila Toll (hToll), also called Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), is a recently cloned receptor of the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Interestingly, the TLR4 gene has been localized to the same region to which the Lps locus (endotoxin unresponsive gene locus) is mapped. To examine the role of TLR4 in LPS responsiveness, we have generated(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice.(More)
Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also called DDX58) is a cytosolic viral RNA receptor that interacts with MAVS (also called VISA, IPS-1 or Cardif) to induce type I interferon-mediated host protective innate immunity against viral infection. Furthermore, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which contain a cluster of a RING-finger(More)
The ribonucleic acid (RNA) helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) recognize distinct viral and synthetic RNAs, leading to the production of interferons. Although 5'-triphosphate single-stranded RNA is a RIG-I ligand, the role of RIG-I and MDA5 in double-stranded (ds) RNA recognition remains to(More)